Nigel Kirkham

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The increase in reports of novel diseases in a wide range of ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine, has been linked to many factors including exposure to novel pathogens and changes in the global climate. Prevalence of skin cancer in particular has been found to be increasing in humans, but has not been reported in wild fish before. Here we report(More)
A panel of 73 samples, including 52 primary breast carcinomas, 10 normal breast tissues and 11 axillary lymph nodes, has been analysed for the presence of amplifications and gross structural alterations, in the oncogenes c-erbB-2, c-erbA, c-myc, N-myc, c-mos and c-Ha-ras. The tumours were also classified, graded and staged histopathologically and their DNA(More)
Methotrexate continues to be one of the most widely used systemic immunosuppressive agents in dermatology. In addition to the important, well-characterized adverse effects such as hepatotoxicity and myelosuppression, methotrexate may induce a number of rare cutaneous adverse events including methotrexate-induced ulceration. We present a case of(More)
Previous studies of natural killer (NK) activity in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients have failed to show a reduction in cytotoxicity, an observation at variance with results obtained in other malignancies. Interpretation of the data however is complicated by the presence of treated and post-mastectomy patients in the groups studied.In this(More)
The monoclonal antibodies HMFG1 and HMFG2 identify antigens of the milk fat globule membrane which are also found on breast epithelial cells. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using both antibodies on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections of 93 breast carcinoma, 36 histologically benign lesions and 29 histologically normal breast tissue(More)
The sites of tumour development for 6 rat tumours injected into syngeneic rats via different vascular routes was determined. Xenografts of human tumours were also injected intra-arterially (i.a.) into immunosuppressed rats. Following intravenous (i.v.) and intraportal (i.ptl.) injection of cells tumour colonies localized in lung and liver respectively due(More)
Retrospective formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue was obtained from a cohort of 150 samples comprising 29 benign melanocytic naevi and 121 primary melanomas of AJCC disease stages I or II at the time of diagnosis and excision at the Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle-upon-Tyne between January 2003 and May 2005. Ethical permission for the study was(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests autophagy, the principle catabolic process for lysosomal degradation of surplus macromolecules (Roy and Debnath 2010) is fundamental to tumourigenesis. Impaired autophagy results in accumulation of cellular breakdown products, increased oxidative stress and neoplastic transformation (Mathew et al. 2009); whilst efficient(More)
Blister formation and eccrine sweat gland necrosis have been recognized to occur in states of impaired consciousness and were first reported following barbiturate intoxication. Their etiology is complex and cannot simply be explained by pressure effects. Now that barbiturates are less frequently used, clinicians are likely to be less aware of the phenomenon(More)