Nigel James Silman

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BACKGROUND Francisella tularensis causes tularaemia, a life-threatening zoonosis, and has potential as a biowarfare agent. F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, which causes the most severe form of tularaemia, is usually confined to North America. However, a handful of isolates from this subspecies was obtained in the 1980s from ticks and mites from Slovakia and(More)
In the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain WH7803, PstS is a 32-kDa cell wall-associated phosphate-binding protein specifically synthesized under conditions of restricted inorganic phosphate (P1) availability (D. J. Scanlan, N. H. Mann, and N. G. Carr, Mol. Microbiol. 10:181-191, 1993). We have assessed its use as a potential diagnostic marker(More)
The Mud technology of Groisman and Casadaban was adapted to the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. A new high-CO2-requiring (hcr) mutant, hcr Mu28 was isolated following the integration of the Mud element 89 bp upstream of ORFI, at the 5'-flanking region of the rbc operon, which encodes RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The integration involved(More)
The ability of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 to transport inorganic carbon in the form of bicarbonate rapidly decreased following a shift from bicarbonate-limited growth to either excess bicarbonate supply or to photoheterotrophic growth on glucose. Nonmetabolizable analogs of glucose did not exert this effect. The rate at which the bicarbonate(More)
Ferrets are widely used to study human influenza virus infection. Their airway physiology and cell receptor distribution makes them ideal for the analysis of pathogenesis and virus transmission, and for testing the efficacy of anti-influenza interventions and vaccines. The 2009 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) induces mild to moderate respiratory(More)
An oligonucleotide microarray system has been specifically designed to detect and differentiate Bacillus anthracis from other bacterial species present in clinical samples. The pilot-scale microarray initially incorporated probes to detect six common species of bacteria, which were fully evaluated. The microarray comprised long oligonucleotides (50--70-mer)(More)
AIM To analyse the growth of Bacillus anthracis during simulations of the UK anthrax vaccine manufacturing process. METHODS AND RESULTS Simulated vaccine production runs were performed using the toxigenic, acapsulate Sterne 34F(2) strain of B. anthracis in semi-defined medium. After rising during the logarithmic growth phase, the pH of the culture starts(More)
Non-human primates are the animals closest to humans for use in influenza A virus challenge studies, in terms of their phylogenetic relatedness, physiology and immune systems. Previous studies have shown that cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are permissive for infection with H1N1pdm influenza virus. These studies have typically used combined(More)
The M2-1 protein of the important pathogen human respiratory syncytial virus is a zinc-binding transcription antiterminator that is essential for viral gene expression. We present the crystal structure of full-length M2-1 protein in its native tetrameric form at a resolution of 2.5 Å. The structure reveals that M2-1 forms a disk-like assembly with(More)
Advances in understanding the interaction of animal viruses with their cognate receptors has led to improvements in the development of cell-specific, targeted viral vectors. Research strategies to generate safe, non-inflammatory viral vectors that are capable of delivering a therapeutic gene to a specific population of cells are currently underway in many(More)