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Ferrets are widely used to study human influenza virus infection. Their airway physiology and cell receptor distribution makes them ideal for the analysis of pathogenesis and virus transmission, and for testing the efficacy of anti-influenza interventions and vaccines. The 2009 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) induces mild to moderate respiratory(More)
BACKGROUND Francisella tularensis causes tularaemia, a life-threatening zoonosis, and has potential as a biowarfare agent. F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, which causes the most severe form of tularaemia, is usually confined to North America. However, a handful of isolates from this subspecies was obtained in the 1980s from ticks and mites from Slovakia and(More)
Glutamine synthetase (GS) inactivation was observed in crude cell extracts and in the high-speed supernatant fraction from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 following the addition of ammonium ions, glutamine, or glutamate. Dialysis of the high-speed supernatant resulted in loss of inactivation activity, but this could be restored by the(More)
Tetanus toxin acts by blocking the release of glycine from inhibitory neurones within the spinal cord. An initial stage in the toxin's action is binding to acceptors on the nerve surface and polysialogangliosides are a component of these acceptor moieties. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we identify tyrosine-1290 of tetanus toxin as a key residue that is(More)
Non-human primates are the animals closest to humans for use in influenza A virus challenge studies, in terms of their phylogenetic relatedness, physiology and immune systems. Previous studies have shown that cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are permissive for infection with H1N1pdm influenza virus. These studies have typically used combined(More)
We determined the role of Yersinia pestis virulence markers in an animal model of pneumonic plague. Eleven strains of Y. pestis were characterized using PCR assays to detect the presence of known virulence genes both encoded by the three plasmids as well as chromosomal markers. The virulence of all Y. pestis strains was compared in a mouse model for(More)
A temporal study of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary, pulmonary challenge model Macaca fascicularis has been conducted. PBL samples were taken prior to challenge and at one, two, four and six weeks post-challenge and labelled, purified RNAs hybridised to Operon Human Genome AROS V4.0 slides.(More)
With the rapidly increasing demands for ultrasensitive biodetection, the design and applications of new nano-scale materials for development of sensors based on optical and electrochemical transducers have attracted substantial interest. In particular, given the comparable sizes of nanomaterials and biomolecules, there exist plenty of opportunities to(More)
The text in Fig 1 highlighting rows of expression data by week is incorrectly reversed. The authors have provided a corrected version here. access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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