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The authors examined the factor structure and discriminant validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) in adults seeking evaluation for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Three factors (Dysthymia, Oppositional/Defiant Behavior, and School Problems) accounted for 59.4% of the variance. In a stepwise discriminant function analysis, age and(More)
Models of dialog state are important, both scientifically and practically, but today's best build strongly on tradition. This paper presents a new way to identify the important dimensions of dialog state, more bottom-up and empirical than previous approaches. Specifically, we applied Principal Component Analysis to a large number of low-level prosodic(More)
—In spoken dialog, speakers are simultaneously engaged in various mental processes, and it seems likely that the word that will be said next depends, to some extent, on the states of these mental processes. Further, these states can be inferred, to some extent, from properties of the speaker's voice as they change from moment to moment. As a illustration of(More)
Of 143 adults presenting for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) evaluation, 46 (32%) clearly met diagnostic criteria, 46 (32%) clearly did not meet diagnostic criteria, and another 51 (36%) with current ADHD-like features did not meet criteria due to either a lack of childhood history and/or complicating severe psychiatric or substance abuse(More)
People in dialog use a rich set of nonverbal behaviors, including variations in the prosody of their utterances. Such behaviors, often emotion-related, call for appropriate responses, but today's spoken dialog systems lack the ability to do this. Recent work has shown how to recognize user emotions from prosody and how to express system-side emotions with(More)
As a priority-setting exercise, we compared interactions between users and a simple spoken dialog system to interactions between users and a human operator. We observed usability events, places in which system behavior differed from human behavior, and for each we noted the impact, root causes, and prospects for improvement. We suggest some priority issues(More)
  • N G Ward
  • 1975
A case of transvestism in a 24-year-old manic-depressive man is described. The behavior had been maintained for 2 years and disappeared soon after lithium treatment was begun. It has not returned during the first year on lithium. Dynamic and behavioral explanations for this unusual therapeutic response are considered. The dynamic explanation involves the(More)