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This is a review paper of the field of research into expertise in design. There has been a growth of empirical and formalised study of designer behaviour, and this paper focuses specifically on expert performance. Some background information from the study of expertise in other fields is introduced. The studies of design expertise that are reviewed refer to(More)
Three case studies of creative design in engineering and product design are reported. The studies are of exceptional designers and comprise two retrospective interview studies and one protocol study. In each case, an example of the designer's approach to a particular design problem is presented. Comparisons between the three examples are drawn, and there(More)
Three studies of innovative design in engineering and product design are reported. The studies are of outstanding designers and comprise two retrospective interview studies and one protocol study. In each case, an example of the designer’s approach to a particular design problem is presented. Comparisons between the three examples are drawn, and there(More)
OBJECTIVES Bordetella pertussis is a common, underrecognized, and vaccine-preventable cause of critical illness with a high mortality in infants worldwide. Patients with severe cases present with extreme leukocytosis and develop refractory hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension that is unresponsive to maximal intensive care. This may reflect a hyperviscosity(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the durability of wet-preprimed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuits for potential use in resuscitation after a 2-wk period of storage. DESIGN Experimental laboratory study. SETTING Tertiary care pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. SUBJECTS None. INTERVENTIONS AND MEASUREMENTS 14 ECMO circuits (polyvinyl(More)
1. Simultaneous radioisotopic (99Tc-DTPA) gastric emptying measurements and paracetamol pharmacokinetic studies were performed in eight healthy male volunteers with and without levodopa (125 mg orally). 2. In the absence of levodopa gamma camera imaging showed rapid mono or biexponential emptying in all subjects and the plasma concentration-time curves for(More)
A wet-primed ready-to-use extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit is used in some centres for rapid deployment of ECMO during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Yet, the potential release of plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from the polyvinyl chloride tubing in the circuit during storage is a concern. In this study, a high performance(More)
Visual reasoning in design is facilitated by sketching. This research investigates how designers sketch, specifically analysing the physical details of mark making. It relates the graphical representations to the abstract cognitive processes of architectural design. A new form of protocol analysis has been developed using video and computer records of(More)