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Numerous viruses of human or animal origin can spread in the environment and infect people via water and food, mostly through ingestion and occasionally through skin contact. These viruses are released into the environment by various routes including water run-offs and aerosols. Furthermore, zoonotic viruses may infect humans exposed to contaminated surface(More)
Numerous outbreaks have been attributed to the consumption of raw or minimally processed leafy green vegetables contaminated with enteric viral pathogens. The aim of the present study was an integrated virological monitoring of the salad vegetables supply chain in Europe, from production, processing and point-of-sale. Samples were collected and analysed in(More)
Rotaviruses are generally species-specific, but cross-species transmission is possible, as has been demonstrated experimentally. Several case studies have indicated infection of humans by animal rotaviruses. Comparison of genetic sequences of human and animal rotaviruses often reveals close identity. Surveillance of circulating rotaviruses in the human(More)
Exposure to human pathogenic viruses in recreational waters has been shown to cause disease outbreaks. In the context of Article 14 of the revised European Bathing Waters Directive 2006/7/EC (rBWD, CEU, 2006) a Europe-wide surveillance study was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of two human enteric viruses in recreational waters.(More)
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of diarrhoeal disease in humans, worldwide and are major causes of protozoan waterborne diseases. Both Cryptosporidium and Giardia have life cycles which are suited to waterborne and foodborne transmission. There are 16 'valid'Cryptosporidium species and a further 33+ genotypes described. Parasites which infect(More)
Human enteric pathogenic viruses can enter the environment through discharge of waste materials from infected persons, and be transmitted back to susceptible persons to continue the cycle of disease. Contamination of food with viruses may also promote disease outbreaks. A number of studies have investigated the survival characteristics of several enteric(More)
Protocols for the specific detection of Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon were developed. PCR was used as the method of detection. Inhibitors of PCR present in the food samples were removed by ether extraction or column purification, or their effect was overcome by the use of Tween 20 as an enhancer. These protocols are many times more rapid than(More)
In vitro amplification of nucleic acids using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become, since its discovery in the 1980s, a powerful diagnostic tool for the analysis of microbial infections as well as for the analysis of microorganisms in food samples. However, despite its potential, PCR has neither gained wide acceptance in routine diagnostics nor(More)
The isothermal amplification method nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), which amplifies RNA, has been reported as useful for the detection of microbial pathogens in food and environmental samples. Methods have been published for Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis in various foods and for(More)