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Studies on a dose-response relation often report separate relative risks for several risk classes compared with a referent class. When performing a meta-analysis of such studies, one has to convert these relative risks into an overall relative risk for a continuous effect. Apart from taking the dependence between separate relative risks into account, this(More)
Characterizing the basic reproduction number, R(0), for many wildlife disease systems can seem a complex problem because several species are involved, because there are different epidemiological reactions to the infectious agent at different life-history stages, or because there are multiple transmission routes. Tick-borne diseases are an important example(More)
BACKGROUND Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the Mediterranean Basin, where the dog is the main reservoir host. The disease's causative agent, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by blood-feeding female sandflies. This paper reports an integrative study of canine leishmaniasis in a region of France spanning the southwest Massif Central and the(More)
The application of projection matrices in population biology to plant and animal populations has a parallel in infectious disease ecology when next-generation matrices (NGMs) are used to characterize growth in numbers of infected hosts (R(0)). The NGM is appropriate for multi-host pathogens, where each matrix element represents the number of cases of one(More)
Given the veterinary and public health impact of vector-borne diseases, there is a clear need to assess the suitability of landscapes for the emergence and spread of these diseases. Current approaches for predicting disease risks neglect key features of the landscape as components of the functional habitat of vectors or hosts, and hence of the pathogen.(More)
Geographical maps indicating the value of the basic reproduction number, R₀, can be used to identify areas of higher risk for an outbreak after an introduction. We develop a methodology to create R₀ maps for vector-borne diseases, using bluetongue virus as a case study. This method provides a tool for gauging the extent of environmental effects on disease(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is principally considered to be maintained in a mosquito-bird transmission cycle. Under experimental conditions, several other transmission routes have been observed, but the significance of these additional routes in nature is unknown. Here, we derive an expression for the basic reproduction number (R0) for WNV including all putative(More)
Accurate estimation of population size is key to understanding the ecology of disease vectors, as well as the epidemiology of the pathogens they carry and to plan effective control activities. Population size can be estimated through mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiments that are based on the assumption that the ratio of recaptured individuals to the(More)
BACKGROUND Models for the spatial distribution of vector species are important tools in the assessment of the risk of establishment and subsequent spread of vector-borne diseases. The aims of this study are to define the environmental conditions suitable for several mosquito species through species distribution modelling techniques, and to compare the(More)
The abundance of infected Ixodid ticks is an important component of human risk of Lyme disease, and various empirical studies have shown that this is associated, at least in part, to landscape fragmentation. In this study, we aimed at exploring how varying woodland fragmentation patterns affect the risk of Lyme disease, through infected tick abundance. A(More)