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High cholesterol levels greatly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. About 50 per cent of cholesterol is eliminated from the body by its conversion into bile acids. However, bile acids released from the bile duct are constantly recycled, being reabsorbed in the intestine by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT, also known as(More)
The interactions of two plant annexins, annexin 24(Ca32) from Capsicum annuum and annexin Gh1 from Gossypium hirsutum, with phospholipid membranes have been characterized using liposome-based assays and adsorption to monolayers. These two plant annexins show a preference for phosphatidylserine-containing membranes and display a membrane binding behavior(More)
Obtaining well-ordered crystals is a major hurdle to X-ray structure determination of membrane proteins. To facilitate crystal optimization, we investigated the detergent stability of 24 eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane proteins, predominantly transporters, using a fluorescent-based unfolding assay. We have benchmarked the stability required for(More)
Alpha-giardins constitute the annexin proteome (group E annexins) in the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia and, as such, represent the evolutionary oldest eukaryotic annexins. The dominance of alpha-giardins in the cytoskeleton of Giardia with its greatly reduced actin content emphasises the importance of the alpha-giardins for the structural integrity(More)
Plant annexins show distinct differences in comparison with their animal orthologues. In particular, the endonexin sequence, which is responsible for coordination of calcium ions in type II binding sites, is only partially conserved in plant annexins. The crystal structure of calcium-bound cotton annexin Gh1 was solved at 2.5 A resolution and shows three(More)
Annexins constitute a family of calcium-dependent membrane-binding proteins and can be classified into two groups, depending on the length of the N-terminal domain unique for each individual annexin. The N-terminal domain of annexin A1 can adopt an alpha-helical conformation and has been implicated in mediating the membrane aggregation behavior of this(More)
Two-dimensional data needs to be processed and analysed in almost any experimental laboratory. Some tasks in this context may be performed with generic software such as spreadsheet programs which are available ubiquitously, others may require more specialised software that requires paid licences. Additionally, more complex software packages typically(More)
Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a highly conserved and widely distributed protein that links the nutritional response signaling to cytoskeleton remodeling. In yeast, CAP is a component of the adenylyl cyclase complex and helps to activate the Ras-mediated catalytic cycle of the cyclase. While the N-terminal domain of CAP (N-CAP) provides a binding site(More)
The structure determination of an integral membrane protein using synchrotron X-ray diffraction data collected at room temperature directly in vapour-diffusion crystallization plates (in situ) is demonstrated. Exposing the crystals in situ eliminates manual sample handling and, since it is performed at room temperature, removes the complication of(More)
A key step in the production of recombinant membrane proteins for structural studies is the optimization of protein yield and quality. One commonly used approach is to fuse the protein to green fluorescent protein (GFP), enabling expression to be tracked without the need to purify the protein. Combining fusion to green fluorescent protein with the(More)