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The new stereological methods for correct and efficient sampling and sizing of cells and other particles are reviewed. There is a hierarchy of methods starting from the simplest where even the microscopic magnification may be unknown to the most complex where typically both section thickness and the magnification must be known. Optical sections in suitably(More)
Stereology is a set of simple and efficient methods for quantitation of three-dimensional microscopic structures which is specifically tuned to provide reliable data from sections. Within the last few years, a number of new methods has been developed which are of special interest to pathologists. Methods for estimating the volume, surface area and length of(More)
OBJECTIVES •To compare the bladder tumour recurrence rate in stage Ta and T1 tumours after conventional transurethral resection of the bladder in white light (WL TURB) and after fluorescence-guided TURB (HAL TURB) using hexaminolaevulinate (HAL: Hexvix®, Photocure, Norway) for photodynamic diagnosis during 12 months of follow-up. •As secondary objectives,(More)
PURPOSE Clinically useful molecular markers predicting the clinical course of patients diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer are needed to improve treatment outcome. Here, we validated four previously reported gene expression signatures for molecular diagnosis of disease stage and carcinoma in situ (CIS) and for predicting disease recurrence and(More)
The presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) lesions in the urinary bladder is associated with a high risk of disease progression to a muscle invasive stage. In this study, we used microarray expression profiling to examine the gene expression patterns in superficial transitional cell carcinoma (sTCC) with surrounding CIS (13 patients), without surrounding CIS(More)
With the objective of evaluating leukocyte orchestration in situ, serial blood samples and tumour tissue core needle biopsies were obtained at baseline and repeated after 1 month of therapy, among 49 consecutive single-institution patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Patients were treated with outpatient low-dose subcutaneous interleukin 2(More)
PURPOSE We have previously demonstrated a significant negative impact of intratumoral neutrophils in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. This study assessed intratumoral neutrophils in localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS The study comprised 121 consecutive patients who had a nephrectomy for localized RCC. Biomarkers(More)
Vascularization is a prerequisite for osteogenesis in a number of situations, including bone development, fracture healing, and cortical bone remodeling. It is unknown whether a similar link exists between cancellous bone remodeling and vascularization. Here, we show an association between remodeling sites, capillaries, proliferative cells, and putative(More)
Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is located in the extracellular matrix (ECM). We sought to identify tissues with high levels of MFAP4 mRNA and MFAP4 protein expression. Moreover, we aimed to evaluate the significance of MFAP4 as a marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to correlate MFAP4 with other known ECM markers, such as fibulin-1,(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, several proteins of the extracellular matrix have been characterised as active contributors to allergic airway disease. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is an extracellular matrix protein abundant in the lung, whose biological functions remain poorly understood. In the current study we investigated the role of MFAP4 in(More)