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Outbreaks of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) with increased severity, high relapse rate and significant mortality have been related to the emergence of a new, hypervirulent C. difficile strain in North America and Europe. This emerging strain is referred to as PCR ribotype 027 (Type 027). Since 2005, individual countries have developed surveillance(More)
BACKGROUND Genotypic drug resistance testing provides essential information for guiding treatment in HIV-infected patients. It may either be used for identifying patients with transmitted drug resistance or to clarify reasons for treatment failure and to check for remaining treatment options. While different approaches for the interpretation of HIV sequence(More)
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Infection can result in severe disease. However, little is known about the risk of infection in veterinarians. In a cross-sectional study among German veterinarians, participants provided sera and completed an exposure questionnaire. We investigated predictors for seropositivity using multivariable logistic(More)
In 2007, Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotype 027 emerged in Germany. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to identify specific risk factors for infection with this strain. Logistic regression analysis involving 15 case patients and 31 control patients revealed that exposure to fluoroquinolones (matched odds ratio,(More)
Acknowledgements ECDC would like to thank the members of the expert panel for the contributions and comments. environmental usage of triazoles on the development and spread of resistance to medical triazoles in Aspergillus Impact of environmental usage of triazoles on development of resistance to medical triazoles in Aspergillus spp. Impact of environmental(More)
INTRODUCTION In September 2007 an increase of severe Clostridium difficile-associated infections (CDI) was noticed in a hospital in the city of Trier, Germany. It was assumed that a new, possibly hypervirulent strain (PCR ribotype 027) was related to these events. An outbreak investigation was initiated by the local health authorities and the Robert Koch(More)
For intensively pretreated pediatric patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the treatment options available are limited. We report the case of a highly treatment-experienced 12-year-old boy with multidrug-resistant HIV-1, who was successfully treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) including ritonavir-boosted(More)
Outbreaks of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) with increased severity, high relapse rate and significant mortality have been related to the emergence of a new, hypervirulent C. difficile strain in North America and Europe. This emerging strain is referred to as PCR ribotype 027 (Type 027). Since 2005, individual countries have developed surveillance(More)
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