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Information-processing speed (IPS) slowing is a primary cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis (MS). Basal ganglia, thalamus and neocortex are thought to have a key role for efficient information-processing, yet the specific relative contribution of these structures for MS-related IPS impairment is poorly understood. To determine if basal ganglia and(More)
We assessed the relationship between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy and clinical status in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients over 5 years. A group of 181 patients who participated in the ASA (Avonex-Steroid-Azathioprine) study and had complete clinical and MRI assessments over 2 and 5 years was investigated. One(More)
BACKGROUND The breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier vascular endothelium is critical for entry of immune cells into the MS brain. Vascular co-morbidities are associated with increased risk of progression. Dyslipidemia, elevated LDL and reduced HDL may increase progression by activating inflammatory processes at the vascular endothelium. OBJECTIVE To(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent studies have shown that selective regional, but not global, GM atrophy occurs from clinical onset to conversion to clinically definite MS. Our aim was to investigate the difference in the extent of SDGM and cortical atrophy in a large sample of patients with CIS and early RRMS and to explore the relationship between SDGM and(More)
Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a vascular picture that shows a strong association with multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a Doppler cerebral venous hemodynamic insufficiency severity score (VHISS) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics in 16 patients presenting with CCSVI(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Increasing evidence suggests that iron deposition is present in the later stages of MS. In this study we examined abnormal phase values, indicative of increased iron content on SWI-filtered phase images of the SDGM in CIS patients and HC. We also examined the association of abnormal phase with conventional MR imaging outcomes at first(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify MRI biomarkers associated with long-term disability progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and to define the rate of evolution of global, tissue-specific and regional atrophy in patients with MS over long-term. METHODS MRI of the brain and clinical neurological assessment was performed in 81 patients at time of first(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Pathologic changes in GM have an important role in MS. We investigated the association between SDGM and cortical volume changes and disability progression in early RRMS. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred eighty patients with RRMS had clinical assessment during 5 years and were divided into those with or without SDP at 5 years by the(More)
Understanding the importance of cortical lesions in MS pathogenesis has changed. Histopathologic studies using new immunohistochemical methods show that cortical lesions can be detected more frequently than previously reported. Newer MRI sequences also detect cortical lesions more accurately. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of slice(More)
BACKGROUND Presented is the method "Detection and Outline Error Estimates" (DOEE) for assessing rater agreement in the delineation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. The DOEE method divides operator or rater assessment into two parts: 1) Detection Error (DE) -- rater agreement in detecting the same regions to mark, and 2) Outline Error (OE) -- agreement of(More)