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In biofilms, the bacterial community optimizes the strategies to sense the environment and to communicate from cell to cell. A key player in the development of a bacterial biofilm is the second messenger c-di-GMP, whose intracellular levels are modulated by the opposite activity of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases. Given the huge impact of(More)
Cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase is a haem-containing enzyme responsible for the reduction of nitrite into NO, a key step in the anaerobic respiratory process of denitrification. The active site of cytochrome cd1 contains the unique d1 haem cofactor, from which NO must be released. In general, reduced haems bind NO tightly relative to oxidized haems. In the(More)
BALB/c (H-2(d)) and C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice were infected intravenously with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv or vaccinated intramuscularly with plasmid DNA encoding each of the three mycolyl transferases Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C from M. tuberculosis. Th1-type spleen cell cytokine secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) was analyzed(More)
In response to environmental conditions, NO (nitric oxide) induces global changes in the cellular metabolism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are strictly related to pathogenesis. In particular, at low oxygen tensions and in the presence of NO the denitrification alternative respiration is activated by a key regulator: DNR (dissimilative nitrate respiration(More)
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow in low oxygen, because it is capable of anaerobic respiration using nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor (denitrification). An intermediate of the denitrification pathway is nitric oxide, a compound that may become cytotoxic at high concentration. The intracellular levels of nitric oxide are(More)
The cytochrome cd(1) nitrite reductases are enzymes that catalyse the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide (NO) in the bacterial energy conversion denitrification process. These enzymes contain two different redox centres: one covalently bound c-haem, which is reduced by external donors, and one peculiar d(1)-haem, where catalysis occurs. In the present(More)
Nitrite, previously considered physiologically irrelevant and a simple end product of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, is now envisaged as a reservoir of NO to be activated in response to oxygen (O(2)) depletion. In the first part of this review, we summarize and compare the mechanisms of nitrite-dependent production of NO in selected bacteria and(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known pathogen in chronic respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis. Infectivity of P. aeruginosa is related to the ability to grow under oxygen-limited conditions using the anaerobic metabolism of denitrification, in which nitrate is reduced to dinitrogen via nitric oxide (NO). Denitrification is activated by a cascade(More)
The cd1 NiRs (nitrite reductases) are enzymes catalysing the reduction of nitrite to NO (nitric oxide) in the bacterial energy conversion denitrification process. These enzymes contain two distinct redox centres: one covalently bound c-haem, which is reduced by external electron donors, and another peculiar porphyrin, the d1-haem(More)
In eukaryotes, small amounts of nitrite confer cytoprotection against ischemia/reperfusion-related tissue damage in vivo, possibly via reduction to nitric oxide (NO) and inhibition of mitochondrial function. Several hemeproteins are involved in this protective mechanism, starting with deoxyhemoglobin, which is capable of reducing nitrite. In facultative(More)