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The primate lentivirus auxiliary protein Vpx counteracts an unknown restriction factor that renders human dendritic and myeloid cells largely refractory to HIV-1 infection. Here we identify SAMHD1 as this restriction factor. SAMHD1 is a protein involved in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, a genetic encephalopathy with symptoms mimicking congenital viral(More)
Foamy viruses (FVs) are nonpathogenic retroviruses infecting many species of mammals, notably primates, cattle, and cats. We have examined whether members of the apolipoprotein B-editing catalytic polypeptide-like subunit (APOBEC) family of antiviral cytidine deaminases restrict replication of simian FV. We show that human APOBEC3G is a potent inhibitor of(More)
The IFN-inducible antiviral protein tetherin (or BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) impairs release of mature HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the effect of tetherin. The fate of virions trapped at the cell surface remains poorly understood. Here, we asked whether tetherin impairs HIV cell-to-cell transmission, a major means of viral spread.(More)
The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins protect cells from diverse virus infections by inhibiting virus-cell fusion. IFITM proteins also inhibit HIV-1 replication through mechanisms only partially understood. We show that when expressed in uninfected lymphocytes, IFITM proteins exert protective effects during cell-free virus infection, but(More)
An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication(More)
Crosspresentation is a specialized function of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), allowing them to induce CD8+ T cell responses against exogenous antigens that are not directly produced in their cytotosol. Human plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) are not considered so far as able to perform crosspresentation. We showed here that purified human pDCs crosspresented(More)
The Agence National de Recherche sur le SIDA et les hepatitis Lipo5 vaccine is composed by five long fragments of HIV proteins and was recently shown to induce in seronegative volunteers a CD4 T cell response largely dominated by the G2 fragment. To understand this response profile, we submitted the five HIV fragments to HLA-DR-binding assays and evaluated(More)
OBJECTIVES Evaluation of sequence evolution as well as structural defects and mutations of the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) nef gene in relation to disease progression in infected children. DESIGN We examined a large number of nef alleles sequentially derived from perinatally HIV-1-infected children with different rates of disease(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are a major component of the host innate immune defence against various pathogens. Several viruses, including Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), have developed strategies to evade the NK-cell response. This study was designed to evaluate whether HIV-1 could interfere with the expression of NK cell-activating ligands,(More)
The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) enzyme exerts an intrinsic anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) defense by introducing lethal G-to-A hypermutations in the viral genome. The HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein triggers degradation of A3G and counteracts this antiviral effect. The impact of A3G on the adaptive cellular immune response has(More)