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The primate lentivirus auxiliary protein Vpx counteracts an unknown restriction factor that renders human dendritic and myeloid cells largely refractory to HIV-1 infection. Here we identify SAMHD1 as this restriction factor. SAMHD1 is a protein involved in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, a genetic encephalopathy with symptoms mimicking congenital viral(More)
The IFN-inducible antiviral protein tetherin (or BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) impairs release of mature HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the effect of tetherin. The fate of virions trapped at the cell surface remains poorly understood. Here, we asked whether tetherin impairs HIV cell-to-cell transmission, a major means of viral spread.(More)
Foamy viruses (FVs) are nonpathogenic retroviruses infecting many species of mammals, notably primates, cattle, and cats. We have examined whether members of the apolipoprotein B-editing catalytic polypeptide-like subunit (APOBEC) family of antiviral cytidine deaminases restrict replication of simian FV. We show that human APOBEC3G is a potent inhibitor of(More)
An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication(More)
The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) enzyme exerts an intrinsic anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) defense by introducing lethal G-to-A hypermutations in the viral genome. The HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein triggers degradation of A3G and counteracts this antiviral effect. The impact of A3G on the adaptive cellular immune response has(More)
The molecular mechanisms that allow HIV to integrate into particular sites of the host genome are poorly understood. Here we tested if the nuclear pore complex (NPC) facilitates the targeting of HIV integration by acting on chromatin topology. We show that the integrity of the nuclear side of the NPC, which is mainly composed of Tpr, is not required for HIV(More)
Productive HIV infection of CD4(+) T cells leads to a caspase-independent cell death pathway associated with lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cathepsin release, resulting in mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Herein, we demonstrate that HIV infection induces damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) expression in a(More)
Newly synthesized HIV-1 particles assemble at the plasma membrane of infected cells, before being released as free virions or being transferred through direct cell-to-cell contacts to neighboring cells. Localization of HIV-1 Gag precursor at the cell membrane is necessary and sufficient to trigger viral assembly, whereas the GagPol precursor is additionally(More)
BACKGROUND The elicitation of T-helper type 1 (Th1) cellular immunity to eradicate intracellular pathogens is a challenging task because of the interleukin 12 (IL-12) deficit observed in early infancy. METHODS Screening cord blood responses to various pediatric vaccines and Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists for innate responses and CD4(+) T-cell(More)
The Agence National de Recherche sur le SIDA et les hepatitis Lipo5 vaccine is composed by five long fragments of HIV proteins and was recently shown to induce in seronegative volunteers a CD4 T cell response largely dominated by the G2 fragment. To understand this response profile, we submitted the five HIV fragments to HLA-DR-binding assays and evaluated(More)