Nicoletta Casartelli

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The primate lentivirus auxiliary protein Vpx counteracts an unknown restriction factor that renders human dendritic and myeloid cells largely refractory to HIV-1 infection. Here we identify SAMHD1 as this restriction factor. SAMHD1 is a protein involved in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, a genetic encephalopathy with symptoms mimicking congenital viral(More)
An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication(More)
The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) enzyme exerts an intrinsic anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) defense by introducing lethal G-to-A hypermutations in the viral genome. The HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein triggers degradation of A3G and counteracts this antiviral effect. The impact of A3G on the adaptive cellular immune response has(More)
Foamy viruses (FVs) are nonpathogenic retroviruses infecting many species of mammals, notably primates, cattle, and cats. We have examined whether members of the apolipoprotein B-editing catalytic polypeptide-like subunit (APOBEC) family of antiviral cytidine deaminases restrict replication of simian FV. We show that human APOBEC3G is a potent inhibitor of(More)
The Nef protein is a crucial pathogenicity factor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that contains a proline-rich motif consisting of four conserved prolines: Pro69 (P69), P72, P75 and P78. P72 and P75 were shown to bind Src homology domains 3 (SH3) and have been implicated in many biological functions of Nef, including downmodulation of(More)
The IFN-inducible antiviral protein tetherin (or BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) impairs release of mature HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the effect of tetherin. The fate of virions trapped at the cell surface remains poorly understood. Here, we asked whether tetherin impairs HIV cell-to-cell transmission, a major means of viral spread.(More)
Crosspresentation is a specialized function of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), allowing them to induce CD8+ T cell responses against exogenous antigens that are not directly produced in their cytotosol. Human plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) are not considered so far as able to perform crosspresentation. We showed here that purified human pDCs crosspresented(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are a major component of the host innate immune defence against various pathogens. Several viruses, including Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), have developed strategies to evade the NK-cell response. This study was designed to evaluate whether HIV-1 could interfere with the expression of NK cell-activating ligands,(More)
Recent genome-wide RNAi screens have identified >842 human genes that affect the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cycle. The list of genes implicated in infection differs between screens, and there is minimal overlap. A reason for this variance is the interdependence of HIV infection and host cell function, producing a multitude of indirect or pleiotropic(More)
Productive HIV infection of CD4(+) T cells leads to a caspase-independent cell death pathway associated with lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cathepsin release, resulting in mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Herein, we demonstrate that HIV infection induces damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) expression in a(More)