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This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of the second iteration of SMILE (<b><i>S</i></b>cience and <b><i>M</i></b>ath in an <b><i>I</i></b>mmersive <b><i>L</i></b>earning <b><i>E</i></b>nvironment), an immersive learning game that employs a fantasy 3D virtual environment to engage deaf and hearing children in math and science-based… (More)

Two approaches to teaching math and science to deaf and hearing children use 3D animated interactive software. S ensory-disabled individuals face barriers in schools, workplaces, and social venues. Education related to STEM topics is a pressing problem for the deaf, as deaf individuals are significantly under-represented in science and engineering, 1 and… (More)

- Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta, Ronnie Wilbur, Petra Eccarius, Abe-Harris, Laverne +3 others
- 2013

This paper reports a study that aimed to determine whether character geometric model (i.e. segmented vs. seamless) has an effect on how animated signing is perceived by viewers. Additionally, the study investigated whether the geometric model affects perception at varying degrees of linguistic complexity-specifically handshape complexity. We modeled and… (More)

A conventional pinhole camera captures only a small fraction of a 3-D scene due to occlusions. We introduce the graph camera, a non-pinhole with rays that circumvent occluders to create a single layer image that shows simultaneously several regions of interest in a 3-D scene. The graph camera image exhibits good continuity and little redundancy. The graph… (More)

We present the design of a new 3D animation tool for self-teaching (signing and reading) finger spelling—the first basic component in learning any sign language. We have designed a highly realistic hand with natural animation of the finger motions. Smoothness of motion (in real time) is achieved via pro-grammable blending of animation segments. The hand is… (More)

In this article, we describe the development of two novel approaches to teaching math and science concepts to deaf children using 3D animated interactive software. One approach, Mathsigner, is non-immersive and the other, SMILE, is a virtual reality immersive environment. The content is curriculum-based, and the animated signing characters are constructed… (More)

We present a new highly interactive program to teach American Sign Language (ASL) for K-3 mathematics by 3D animation. We aim at increasing: (1) the opportunity for deaf children to learn arithmetic via interactive media; (2) the effectiveness of (hearing) parents in teaching arithmetic to their deaf children; (3) the effectiveness of ASL K-8 mathematics… (More)

Quick creation of 3D character animations is an important task in game design, simulations, forensic animation, education, training, and more. We present a framework for creating 3D animated characters using a simple sketching interface coupled with a large, unannotated motion database that is used to find the appropriate motion sequences corresponding to… (More)

In this paper we describe the development of a new immersive 3D learning environment to increase mathematical skills of deaf children. The application teaches mathematical concepts and ASL (American Sign Language) math terminology through user interaction with fantasy 3D virtual signers and environments. The program can be displayed in immersive devices and… (More)