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The purpose of this study was to document the genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC; formerly Zaire). A total of 247 HIV-1-positive samples, collected during an epidemiologic survey conducted in 1997 in three regions (Kinshasa [the capital], Bwamanda [in the north], and Mbuyi-Maya [in the(More)
BACKGROUND Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and(More)
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is characterized by low and stable HIV prevalences and high HIV-1 genetic diversity and is most probably the epicenter of HIV-1 group M. Our major goal was to study the distribution of HIV-1 variants over a 5-year period against a background of political instability and civil war. A total of 288 HIV-1-positive samples(More)
BACKGROUND CRF02_AG is the predominant HIV strain circulating in West and West Central Africa. The aim of this study was to test whether this predominance is associated with a higher in vitro replicative fitness relative to parental subtype A and G viruses. Primary HIV-1 isolates (10 CRF02_AG, 5 subtype A and 5 subtype G) were obtained from a well-described(More)
INTRODUCTION Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been scaled up over the last decade but compared to adults, children living with HIV are less likely to receive ART. Moreover, children and adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to virological failure (VF) and emergence of drug resistance. In this study we determined virological outcome in perinatally(More)
On the basis of partial env and gag subtyping, we documented that the majority of HIV-1 strains circulating in Niger were CRF02-AG (54.3%) or CRF06-cpx (18.1%) and that 9% of the samples were possible recombinants between CRF02 and CRF06. To determine in more detail the precise structure of these viruses we sequenced the full-length genomes for three such(More)
To study recombination and the natural polymorphism in pol of HIV-1 strains in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) we sequenced the protease and RT genes for 70 HIV-1 strains previously characterized in the env V3-V5 region from a sentinel surveillance study in 2002. For 41 of the 70 (58.6%) strains, the same subtype/ CRF designations were observed in(More)
Trichomoniasis is recognised as a major sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the world and may act as an acquired immunodeficiency syndromes (AIDS) co-factor by enhancing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis can be achieved by several methods, but sensitive detection means are still lacking. In this(More)
Members of HIV-1 group M are responsible for the vast majority of AIDS cases worldwide and have been classified on the basis of their phylogenetic relationships into nine roughly equidistant clades, termed subtypes. Although there are no known phenotypic correlates for these genotypes, the disproportionate spread of certain of these lineages has been taken(More)
We recently reported a high divergence among African subtype F strains. Three well-separated groups (F1, F2, and F3) have been shown based on the phylogenetic analysis of the p24 gag and envelope sequences with genetic distances similar to those observed for known subtypes. In this study, we characterized the near-full-length genomes of two strains from(More)