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The purpose of this study was to document the genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC; formerly Zaire). A total of 247 HIV-1-positive samples, collected during an epidemiologic survey conducted in 1997 in three regions (Kinshasa [the capital], Bwamanda [in the north], and Mbuyi-Maya [in the(More)
BACKGROUND Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and(More)
INTRODUCTION Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been scaled up over the last decade but compared to adults, children living with HIV are less likely to receive ART. Moreover, children and adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to virological failure (VF) and emergence of drug resistance. In this study we determined virological outcome in perinatally(More)
BACKGROUND The classification of HIV-1 strains in subtypes and Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs) has helped in tracking the course of the HIV pandemic. In Senegal, which is located at the tip of West Africa, CRF02_AG predominates in the general population and Female Sex Workers (FSWs). In contrast, 40% of Men having Sex with Men (MSM) in Senegal are(More)
BACKGROUND CRF02_AG is the predominant HIV strain circulating in West and West Central Africa. The aim of this study was to test whether this predominance is associated with a higher in vitro replicative fitness relative to parental subtype A and G viruses. Primary HIV-1 isolates (10 CRF02_AG, 5 subtype A and 5 subtype G) were obtained from a well-described(More)
BACKGROUND With widespread use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in Africa, one of the major potential challenges is the risk of emergence of ARV drug-resistant HIV strains. Our objective is to evaluate the virological failure and genotypic drug-resistance mutations in patients receiving first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in routine clinics(More)
High simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) seroprevalence rates have been reported in the different African green monkey (AGM) subspecies. Genetic diversity of these viruses far exceeds the diversity observed in the other lentivirus-infected human and nonhuman primates and is thought to reflect ancient introduction of SIV in the AGM population. We investigate(More)
BACKGROUND Prevalence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes has increased overtime in patients diagnosed at the time of primary infection (PHI) in France. Our objective was to characterize in detail non-B strains which could not be genetically classified into the known subtypes/Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs). METHODS Among 744 patients enrolled in the ANRS PRIMO(More)
BACKGROUND Although the outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Guangdong has been documented for more than a decade, the molecular characteristics of such a regional HIV-1 epidemic remained unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS By sequencing of HIV-1 pol/env genes and phylogenetic analysis, we performed a molecular epidemiologic(More)
The high seroprevalence of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) in African green monkeys (AGMs) without immunological defects in their natural hosts has prompted consideration of SIV-infected AGMs as a model of apathogenic SIV infection. Study of the molecular mechanisms of SIVagm asymptomatic infection could thus provide clues for understanding the(More)