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The specific functions of greater than 40 vertebrate nonmuscle tropomyosins (Tms) are poorly understood. In this article we have tested the ability of two Tm isoforms, TmBr3 and the human homologue of Tm5 (hTM5(NM1)), to regulate actin filament function. We found that these Tms can differentially alter actin filament organization, cell size, and shape.(More)
BACKGROUND Lamellipodial protrusion, which is the first step in cell movement, is driven by actin assembly and requires activity of the Arp2/3 actin-nucleating complex. However, it is unclear how actin assembly is dynamically regulated to support effective cell migration. RESULTS Cells deficient in cortactin have impaired cell migration and invasion.(More)
Spatially distinct populations of microfilaments, characterized by different tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms, are present within a neuron. To investigate the impact of altered tropomyosin isoform expression on neuronal morphogenesis, embryonic cortical neurons from transgenic mice expressing the isoforms Tm3 and Tm5NM1, under the control of the beta-actin(More)
A growing body of evidence suggests that the Golgi complex contains an actin-based filament system. We have previously reported that one or more isoforms from the tropomyosin gene Tm5NM (also known as gamma-Tm), but not from either the alpha- or beta-Tm genes, are associated with Golgi-derived vesicles (Heimann et al., (1999). J. Biol. Chem. 274,(More)
Most tumors arise from epithelial tissues, such as mammary glands and lobules, and their initiation is associated with the disruption of a finely defined epithelial architecture. Progression from intraductal to invasive tumors is related to genetic mutations that occur at a subcellular level but manifest themselves as functional and morphological changes at(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that an inflammatory microenvironment promotes invasion by glioblastoma (GBM) cells. Together with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation being regarded as promoting inflammation, we hypothesized that elevated inflammatory cytokine secretion and p38 MAPK activity contribute to expansion of GBMs. Here we report(More)
The actin cytoskeleton is the primary polymer system within cells responsible for regulating cellular stiffness. While various actin binding proteins regulate the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the proteins responsible for regulating the mechanical properties of cells are still not fully understood. In the present study, we have(More)
BACKGROUND Epithelial morphogenesis is a dynamic process that involves coordination of signaling and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We analyzed the contribution of the branched actin regulator WAVE2 in the development of 3-dimensional (3D) epithelial structures. WAVE2-knockdown (WAVE2-KD) cells formed large multi-lobular acini that(More)
BACKGROUND Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a malignant soft tissue sarcoma derived from skeletal muscle precursor cells, which accounts for 5-8% of all childhood malignancies. Disseminated RMS represents a major clinical obstacle, and the need for better treatment strategies for the clinically aggressive alveolar RMS subtype is particularly apparent. Previously,(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is known to have properties of both a tumour suppressor and a tumour promoter. While it inhibits cell proliferation, it also increases cell motility and decreases cell-cell adhesion. Coupling mathematical modelling and experiments, we investigate the growth and motility of oncogene-expressing human mammary epithelial cells(More)