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BACKGROUND An epidemiologic profile of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Australia and New Zealand was obtained following the publication of international evidence-based guidelines. METHODS Adult patients with TBI admitted to the intensive care units (ICU) of major trauma centers were studied in a 6-month prospective inception cohort study. Data including(More)
BACKGROUND The Saline versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation study suggested that patients with traumatic brain injury resuscitated with albumin had a higher mortality rate than those resuscitated with saline. We conducted a post hoc follow-up study of patients with traumatic brain injury who were enrolled in the study. METHODS For patients with traumatic brain(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Previous studies have shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a ligand-activated transcription factor expressed in vascular cells, is protective of the vasculature. We hypothesized that activation of PPARgamma could prevent hypertensive remodeling of cerebral arteries and improve vascular function. (More)
Stroke is a major health issue in women. Our previous studies in male rats showed decreased myogenic tone in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), while tone in parenchymal arterioles (PAs) was increased. This vascular response may aggravate stroke damage in males by limiting reperfusion; however, the effect in females is not(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We investigated vasoactive properties of leptomeningeal arterioles (LMAs) under normotensive conditions and during hypertension and aging that are known to have poor collateral flow and little salvageable tissue. METHODS LMAs, identified as distal anastomotic arterioles connecting middle and anterior cerebral arteries, were studied(More)
Previous studies have shown that pregnancy prevents hypertensive remodeling of cerebral arteries. In the present study, we sought to determine whether pregnancy could reverse preexisting remodeling. Nonpregnant virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the NO synthase inhibitor nitro-l-arginine (0.5 g/L in drinking water) for 2 weeks before mating, after(More)
Severe preeclampsia and eclampsia are associated with brain edema that forms preferentially in the posterior cerebral cortex possibly because of decreased sympathetic innervation of posterior cerebral arteries and less effective autoregulation during acute hypertension. In the present study, we examined the effect of pregnancy on the effectiveness of(More)
Few studies have compared long-term follow-up and risk for invasive cancer in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). We conducted a 6-year review of pathology files for 651 women in whom ASCUS had been diagnosed in 1992. Data collected included patient demographics, follow-up diagnoses, time between follow-up examinations,(More)
In diving animals, skeletal muscle adaptations to extend underwater time despite selective vasoconstriction include elevated myoglobin (Mb) concentrations, high acid buffering ability (beta) and high aerobic and anaerobic enzyme activities. However, because cardiac muscle is perfused during dives, it may rely less heavily on Mb, beta and anaerobic pathways(More)
The authors investigated the influence of pregnancy and gender on the density of trigeminal and sympathetic perivascular nerves in posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) and the reactivity to norepinephrine and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). PCAs were isolated from nonpregnant, late-pregnant, postpartum, and male rats, mounted and pressurized on an(More)