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H2AX phosphorylation is an early step in the response to DNA damage. It is widely accepted that ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein) phosphorylates H2AX in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Whether DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) plays any role in this response is unclear. Here, we show that H2AX phosphorylation after exposure to(More)
The hereditary disorder ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is associated with striking cellular radiosensitivity that cannot be attributed to the characterized cell cycle checkpoint defects. By epistasis analysis, we show that ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM) and Artemis, the protein defective in patients with RS-SCID, function in a common double-strand(More)
Ionizing radiation can lead to a variety of deleterious effects in humans, most importantly to the induction of cancer. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most significant genetic lesions introduced by ionizing radiation that can initiate carcinogenesis. We have enumerated gamma-H2AX foci as a measure for DSBs in lymphocytes from individuals(More)
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) trigger ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) signalling and elicit genomic rearrangements and chromosomal fragmentation if misrepaired or unrepaired. Although most DSB repair is ATM-independent, ∼15% of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced breaks persist in the absence of ATM-signalling. 53BP1 (p53-binding protein 1) facilitates(More)
All cells have intricately coupled sensing and signaling mechanisms that regulate the cellular outcome following exposure to genotoxic agents such as ionizing radiation (IR). In the IR-induced signaling pathway, specific protein events, such as ataxia-telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM) activation and histone H2AX phosphorylation (gamma-H2AX), are(More)
PURPOSE Radiotherapy is an effective cancer treatment, but a few patients suffer severe radiation toxicities in neighboring normal tissues. There is increasing evidence that the variable susceptibility to radiation toxicities is caused by the individual genetic predisposition, by subtle mutations, or polymorphisms in genes involved in cellular responses to(More)
The ATM protein, which is mutated in individuals with ataxia telangiectasia (AT), is central to cell cycle checkpoint responses initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). ATM's role in DSB repair is currently unclear as is the basis underlying the radiosensitivity of AT cells. We applied immunofluorescence detection of gamma-H2AX nuclear foci and(More)
The ATM protein, which is mutated in individuals with ataxia telangiectasia (AT), is central to cell cycle checkpoint responses initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). ATM’s role in DSB repair is currently unclear as is the basis underlying the radiosensitivity of AT cells. We applied immunofluorescence detection of -H2AX nuclear foci and pulsed-field(More)
Human p53 protein was found to be functional in fission yeast in terms of growth repression and checkpoint control. Expression of wild-type p53 or the hot spot mutant p53His273 results in dramatic morphological changes and loss of viability of recipient yeast cells. Overexpression of cdc25C phosphatase, the mitotic activator of cdc2, results in suppression(More)
We produced a rabbit monoclonal antibody (MAb) against human CDC25C phosphatase. The antibody reacts with a minimal epitope between amino acids 291-295 in the highly conserved C-terminal region of CDC25C. The antibody recognizes denatured CDC25C of recombinant and mammalian origin in Western blot analysis. The corresponding rabbit polyclonal serum is able(More)