Nicole P. Sandhu

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Endogenous estrogens can be bio-activated to endogenous carcinogens via formation of estrogen quinones. Estrogen-3,4-quinones react with DNA to form mutagenic depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts. The carcinogenicity of endogenous estrogens is related to unbalanced estrogen metabolism leading to excess estrogen quinones and formation of depurinating DNA(More)
Although much emphasis has been placed on the primary presentations of breast cancer, little focus has been placed on how systemic illnesses may affect the breast. In this article, we discuss systemic illnesses that can manifest in the breast. We summarize the clinical features, imaging, histopathology, and treatment recommendations for endocrine, vascular,(More)
BACKGROUND Breast cancer risk education enables women make informed decisions regarding their options for screening and risk reduction. We aimed to determine whether patient education regarding breast cancer risk using a bar graph, with or without a frequency format diagram, improved the accuracy of risk perception. METHODS We conducted a prospective,(More)
This study was conducted to determine whether the ratio of estrogen-DNA adducts to their respective metabolites and conjugates in serum differed between women with early-onset breast cancer and those with average or high risk of developing breast cancer. Serum samples from women at average risk (n=63) or high risk (n=80) for breast cancer (using Gail model)(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to review the imaging features of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) with clinical and pathology correlation. METHODS With institutional review board (IRB) approval, a retrospective search of the surgical pathology database from January 2000 to July 2015 was performed. Clinical, imaging and histology findings(More)
Radiation therapy is an important and effective adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. Numerous health conditions may affect medical decisions regarding tolerance of breast radiation therapy. These factors must be considered during the decision-making process after breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy for breast cancer. Here, we review currently available(More)
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