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OBJECTIVE We aimed at detecting neurophysiological changes, in the primary motor tongue representation in adults with persistent stuttering. METHODS Using transcranial magnetic stimulation in 12 patients and 14 controls, we examined motor threshold, motor-evoked potential (MEP) input-output curve, short-term intracortical inhibition (SICI) and(More)
INTRODUCTION In adults who do not stutter (AWNS), the control of hand movement timing is assumed to be lateralized to the left dorsolateral premotor cortex (PMd). In adults who stutter (AWS), the network of speech motor control is abnormally shifted to the right hemisphere. Motor impairments in AWS are not restricted to speech, but extend to non-speech(More)
Imaging studies suggest a right hemispheric (pre)motor overactivity in patients with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS). The interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) studied with transcranial magnetic stimulation is an established measure of the interplay between right and left motor areas. We assessed IHI in 15 young male adults with PDS and 15 age-matched(More)
Cortical layer-dependent high (sub-millimeter) resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in human or animal brain can be used to address questions regarding the functioning of cortical circuits, such as the effect of different afferent and efferent connectivities on activity in specific cortical layers. The sensitivity of gradient echo (GE)(More)
The precise excitability regulation of neuronal circuits in the primary motor cortex is central to the successful and fluent production of speech. Our question was whether the involuntary execution of undesirable movements, e.g. stuttering, is linked to an insufficient excitability tuning of neural populations in the orofacial region of the primary motor(More)
Neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation provide insights into the neuronal mechanisms underlying speech disfluencies in chronic persistent stuttering. In the present paper, the goal is not to provide an exhaustive review of existing literature, but rather to highlight robust findings. We, therefore, conducted a meta-analysis of diffusion tensor(More)
PURPOSE In individuals who stutter (IWS), speech fluency can be enhanced by altered auditory feedback, although it has adverse effects in control speakers. This indicates abnormalities in the auditory feedback loop in stuttering. Current motor control theories on stuttering propose an impaired processing of internal forward models that might be related to a(More)
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a promising technology for both neurology and psychiatry. Positive treatment outcome has been reported, for instance in double blind, multi-center studies on depression. Nonetheless, the application of TMS towards studying and treating brain disorders is still limited by inter-subject variability and lack of model(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Area 44 is a cytoarchitectonically distinct portion of Broca's region. Parallel and overlapping large-scale networks couple with this region thereby orchestrating heterogeneous language, cognitive, and motor functions. In the context of stuttering, area 44 frequently comes into focus because structural and physiological irregularities(More)