Nicole M Racine

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OBJECTIVE This study investigated the associations between caregiver verbal reassurance and infant pain-related distress during immunization over the first year of life. The relationships between verbal reassurance and caregiver emotional availability (EA) were also examined. Finally, EA was investigated as a moderator of the relationship between verbal(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether caregivers with more extreme emotional availability scores enact different levels of soothing behaviors and whether infants of these caregivers differ in their pain scores across the first year of life. METHODS Cross-sectional analyses (analyses of variance and multivariate analyses of variance) were conducted with(More)
OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review of the factors predicting anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures in children. METHODS A systematic search was conducted to identify studies with factors related to anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures in children aged 0-18 years. The search retrieved 7,088 articles to review against(More)
Anticipatory distress prior to a painful medical procedure can lead to negative sequelae including heightened pain experiences, avoidance of future medical procedures, and potential noncompliance with preventative health care, such as vaccinations. Few studies have examined the longitudinal and concurrent predictors of pain-related anticipatory distress.(More)
invited speaker: irene Tracey nuffield Professor anaesthetic science & director, oxford centre for fMri of Brain, nuffield department of clinical neurosciences, (head, nuffield division anaesthetics), oxford university, england, uK The ability to experience pain is old and shared across species. It confers an evolutionary advantage and provides a warning of(More)
Background: Vaccine injections are the most common painful needle procedure experienced throughout the lifespan. Many strategies are available to mitigate this pain; however, they are uncommonly utilized, leading to unnecessary pain and suffering. Some individuals develop a high level of fear and subsequent needle procedures are associated with significant(More)
BACKGROUND There is considerable variability in infants' responses to painful stimuli, including facial and vocal expressions. This variability in pain-related distress response may be an indicator of temperament styles in childhood. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationships among immunization pain outcomes (pain reactivity, pain regulation and parent(More)
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