Nicole M Racine

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OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review of the factors predicting anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures in children. METHODS A systematic search was conducted to identify studies with factors related to anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures in children aged 0-18 years. The search retrieved 7,088 articles to review against(More)
BACKGROUND Infant acute pain and distress is commonplace. Infancy is a period of exponential development. Unrelieved pain and distress can have implications across the lifespan.  OBJECTIVES To assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for infant and child (up to three years) acute pain, excluding breastmilk, sucrose, and music. Analyses(More)
BACKGROUND Pain is largely accepted as being influenced by social context. Unlike most other developmental stages throughout the lifespan, infancy is marked by complete dependence on the caregiver. The present paper discusses the primary importance of understanding the caregiver context when assessing infant pain expression. OBJECTIVES Based on a review(More)
BACKGROUND Vaccine injections are the most common painful needle procedure experienced throughout the lifespan. Many strategies are available to mitigate this pain; however, they are uncommonly utilized, leading to unnecessary pain and suffering. Some individuals develop a high level of fear and subsequent needle procedures are associated with significant(More)
BACKGROUND Acute pain and distress during medical procedures are commonplace for young children. OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of nonpharmacological interventions for acute procedural pain in children up to three years of age. METHODS Study inclusion criteria were: participants <3 years of age, involved in a randomized controlled or crossover trial,(More)
OBJECTIVE Cognitive impairment is a core symptom of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS), although relatively little is known regarding the rate of cognitive decline. This study examined the extent, pattern, and correlates of change in cognitive functioning in youth with MS. METHOD Changes in cognitive performance in 28 patients with pediatric-onset MS(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated the associations between caregiver verbal reassurance and infant pain-related distress during immunization over the first year of life. The relationships between verbal reassurance and caregiver emotional availability (EA) were also examined. Finally, EA was investigated as a moderator of the relationship between verbal(More)
Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Scientific Staff, Department of Psychiatry, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada The O.U.C.H. Lab, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, 2038 Sherman Health Sciences Building, Toronto,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether caregivers with more extreme emotional availability scores enact different levels of soothing behaviors and whether infants of these caregivers differ in their pain scores across the first year of life. METHODS Cross-sectional analyses (analyses of variance and multivariate analyses of variance) were conducted with(More)