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To evaluate transmission dynamics, we exposed 25 bird species to West Nile virus (WNV) by infectious mosquito bite. We monitored viremia titers, clinical outcome, WNV shedding (cloacal and oral), seroconversion, virus persistence in organs, and susceptibility to oral and contact transmission. Passeriform and charadriiform birds were more reservoir competent(More)
Tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.) have exhibited high seroprevalence rates, suggesting that they are commonly exposed to West Nile virus (WNV). Many characteristics of WNV infections in tree squirrels, such as the durations and levels of viremia, remain unknown. To better understand WNV infections in fox squirrels (S. niger), we subcutaneously inoculated(More)
The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a common and abundant amplifying host of West Nile virus (WNV) and many survive infection and develop humoral immunity. We experimentally inoculated house sparrows with WNV and monitored duration and protection of resulting antibodies. Neutralizing antibody titers remained relatively constant for >or= 36 months (N =(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) infection and associated disease and mortality have been documented in numerous North American raptor species. Information regarding clinical presentations and long-term outcomes of WNV-infected raptors is important in the clinic for the diagnosis, treatment, and assessment of prognosis, as well as for understanding potential(More)
Similar to West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has a history of intercontinental spread, and birds are important for the maintenance and transmission of both of these closely related viruses. We examined viremic and serologic responses of blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), with and without immunity to WNV, following experimental(More)
In 2005, 13.5% of clinic-admitted raptors in northern Colorado tested positive for West Nile virus (WNV). Clinic-admitted-raptor surveillance detected WNV activity nearly 14 weeks earlier than other surveillance systems. WNV surveillance using live raptor admissions to rehabilitation clinics may offer a novel surveillance method and should be considered(More)
Background Unstable distal ulna fractures in the setting of distal radius fractures can present a challenging problem, especially in the elderly population. Operative fixation of the subcapital distal ulna fracture may help to provide a stable ulnar buttress for attempting to reduce the distal radius fracture. Traditional fixation techniques of the distal(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW West Nile virus emerged recently in North America as a serious human and animal pathogen. This review summarizes the use of experimental infections with West Nile virus in diverse vertebrate species that have been used to answer fundamental questions about the host response, pathogenesis of West Nile virus infection and virus evolution. (More)
We studied the effects of natural and/or experimental infections of West Nile virus (WNV) in five raptor species from July 2002 to March 2004, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), barn owls (Tyto alba), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Birds were infected per(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the relationship between age at initiation of toilet training, age at completion of toilet training, and the duration of toilet training. METHODS A total of 406 children seen at a suburban private pediatric practice were enrolled in a study of toilet training between 17 and 19 months of age, and 378 (93%) were followed by telephone(More)