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To evaluate transmission dynamics, we exposed 25 bird species to West Nile virus (WNV) by infectious mosquito bite. We monitored viremia titers, clinical outcome, WNV shedding (cloacal and oral), seroconversion, virus persistence in organs, and susceptibility to oral and contact transmission. Passeriform and charadriiform birds were more reservoir competent(More)
The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a common and abundant amplifying host of West Nile virus (WNV) and many survive infection and develop humoral immunity. We experimentally inoculated house sparrows with WNV and monitored duration and protection of resulting antibodies. Neutralizing antibody titers remained relatively constant for >or= 36 months (N =(More)
Passerine birds have played an important role in the establishment, maintenance, and spread of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America, and some are susceptible to WNV-associated mortality. Characterization of passive transfer of anti-WNV antibodies in passerines is important to understanding transmission and demographic effects of WNV on wild birds. We(More)
Eastern Screech Owls (EASOs) were experimentally infected with the pathogenic New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus (WNV) by subcutaneous injection or per os. Two of nine subcutaneously inoculated birds died or were euthanatized on 8 or 9 days postinfection (DPI) after <24 hr of lethargy and recumbency. All subcutaneously inoculated birds developed levels(More)
Tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.) have exhibited high seroprevalence rates, suggesting that they are commonly exposed to West Nile virus (WNV). Many characteristics of WNV infections in tree squirrels, such as the durations and levels of viremia, remain unknown. To better understand WNV infections in fox squirrels (S. niger), we subcutaneously inoculated(More)
Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old(More)
West Nile virus (WNV)-associated disease has a range of clinical manifestations among avian taxa, the reasons for which are not known. Species susceptibility varies within the avian family Corvidae, with estimated mortality rates ranging from 50 to 100%. We examined and compared virologic, immunologic, pathologic, and clinical responses in 2 corvid species,(More)
Waterfowl and shorebirds are well-recognized natural reservoirs of low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV); however, little is known about the role of passerines in avian influenza virus ecology. Passerines are abundant, widespread, and commonly come into contact with free-ranging birds as well as captive game birds and poultry. We inoculated and(More)
St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV, Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen in South America, with human SLEV encephalitis cases reported in Argentina and Brazil. Genotype III strains of SLEV were isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Cordoba, Argentina in 2005, during the largest SLEV outbreak ever reported in South(More)
Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were inoculated with differing doses of West Nile virus (WNV) to evaluate their potential role as reservoir hosts in nature. Swallows often nest in large colonies in habitats and months associated with high mosquito abundance and early WNV transmission in North America. Additionally, cliff swallow diet consists of(More)