Nicole L. Ward

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Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is characterized by frequent loss of PTCH1, leading to constitutive activation of the Hedgehog pathway. Although the requirement for Hedgehog in BCC is well established, the identity of disease-initiating cells and the compartments in which they reside remain controversial. By using several inducible Cre drivers to delete Ptch1 in(More)
IL-17C is a functionally distinct member of the IL-17 family that binds IL-17 receptor E/A to promote innate defense in epithelial cells and regulate Th17 cell differentiation. We demonstrate that IL-17C (not IL-17A) is the most abundant IL-17 isoform in lesional psoriasis skin (1058 versus 8 pg/ml; p < 0.006) and localizes to keratinocytes (KCs),(More)
Development of a suitable mouse model would facilitate the investigation of pathomechanisms underlying human psoriasis and would also assist in development of therapeutic treatments. However, while many psoriasis mouse models have been proposed, no single model recapitulates all features of the human disease, and standardized validation criteria for(More)
IL-1F6, IL-1F8, and IL-1F9 and the IL-1R6(RP2) receptor antagonist IL-1F5 constitute a novel IL-1 signaling system that is poorly characterized in skin. To further characterize these cytokines in healthy and inflamed skin, we studied their expression in healthy control, uninvolved psoriasis, and psoriasis plaque skin using quantitative RT-PCR and(More)
The IL-1 family members IL-36α (IL-1F6), IL-36β (IL-1F8), and IL-36γ (IL-1F9) and the receptor antagonist IL-36Ra (IL-1F5) constitute a novel signaling system that is poorly understood. We now show that these cytokines have profound effects on the skin immune system. Treatment of human keratinocytes with IL-36 cytokines significantly increased the(More)
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the main polyphenol component of green tea. This compound exhibits antioxidant, immunomodulatory, photoprotective, anti-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. We conducted a small randomized, double blind, split face trial using a cream containing 2.5% w/w of EGCG. Four healthy volunteers with significant erythema(More)
Neurotrophins regulate survival, neurite outgrowth, and phenotypic maturation of developing neurons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can promote the survival of developing cholinergic forebrain neurons in vitro and reduce their degeneration following injury in adult rats. We investigated the role of endogenous BDNF during postnatal development of(More)
Psoriasis is initiated and maintained through a multifaceted interplay between keratinocytes, blood vessels, gene expression, and the immune system. One previous psoriasis model demonstrated that overexpression of the angiopoietin receptor Tie2 in endothelial cells and keratinocytes led to the development of a psoriasiform phenotype; however, the(More)
The expansion or remodelling of pre-existing blood vessels, known as angiogenesis, by either nascent sprouting, intercalated or intussusceptive growth is a highly regulated process. Angiogenesis is critical not only during normal embryonic vascular development, but also in the progression of several diseases, including cancer, psoriasis, and diabetes. Mouse(More)
Neuronal processes and vessels have similar branching and bifurcation patterning in the adult body and appear to use many of the same molecules during their development, including vascular endothelial growth factor, Notch, neuropilin, and ephrins/Ephs. We were interested in determining whether the endothelial growth factor angiopoietin (Ang) has a unique(More)