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The risk of dying from cervical cancer is disproportionately borne by women in developing countries. Two new vaccines are highly effective in preventing HPV 16,18 infection, responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer, in girls not previously infected. The GAVI Alliance (GAVI) provides technical assistance and financial support for immunization in(More)
In this paper, we argue that lack of access to the fruits of modern medicine and the science that informs it is an important and neglected topic within bioethics and medical ethics. This is especially clear to those working in what are now termed 'resource-poor settings'- to those working, in plain language, among populations living in dire poverty. We draw(More)
Eastern Africa has the world's highest cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. We used epidemiologic data from Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe to develop models of HPV-related infection and disease. For each country, we assessed HPV vaccination of girls before age 12 followed by screening with HPV DNA testing once, twice, or three(More)
Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in El Salvador. Utilizing data from the Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador (CAPE) demonstration project, we assessed the health and economic impact of HPV-based screening and two different algorithms for the management of women who test HPV-positive, relative to existing Pap-based(More)
Recent transnational HIV research projects have raised questions about the ethics of research in developing countries, and with good reason. Lower ethical standards are often applied in these settings, yet the field of bioethics has remained relatively quiet on the subject, concerning itself primarily with issues that only affect affluent countries. Here we(More)
As cervical cancer screening programs are implemented in low-resource settings, protocols are needed to maximize health benefits under operational constraints. Our objective was to develop a framework for examining health and economic tradeoffs between screening test sensitivity, population coverage and follow-up of screen-positive women, to help decision(More)
The presence of more than one human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype may influence the duration of prevalently detected infections. This analysis included 1,646 infections detected at enrollment in 980 women from the Guanacaste, Costa Rica, cohort who were actively followed up every 6-12 months for up to 8 years. We categorized HPV infections as single or(More)
BACKGROUND Current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) target two oncogenic types (16 and 18) that contribute to 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Our objective was to quantify the range of additional benefits conferred by second-generation HPV prophylactic vaccines that are expected to expand protection to five additional(More)
Background. Haitian immigrant women residing in Little Haiti, a large ethnic enclave in Miami-Dade County, experience the highest cervical cancer incidence rates in South Florida. While this disparity primarily reflects lack of access to screening with cervical cytology, the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) which causes virtually all cases of cervical(More)
BACKGROUND Routine cancer screening for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers reduces disease-associated morbidity and mortality through early detection and treatment. Lack of access to health care is a major barrier to screening in immigrant populations. OBJECTIVES We aimed to characterize compliance with national cancer screening guidelines and to(More)