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Escape from T cell-mediated immune responses affects the ongoing evolution of rapidly evolving viruses such as HIV. By applying statistical approaches that account for phylogenetic relationships among viral sequences, we show that viral lineage effects rather than immune escape often explain apparent human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mediated immune-escape(More)
BACKGROUND Elevated risk of HIV-1 infection among recipients of an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-vectored HIV-1 vaccine was previously reported in the Step HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial. We assessed pre-infection cellular immune responses measured at 4 weeks after the second vaccination to determine their roles in HIV-1 infection susceptibility among Step(More)
BACKGROUND Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules bind, and present to T cells, short peptides derived from intracellular processing of proteins. The peptide repertoire of a specific molecule is to a large extent determined by the molecular structure accommodating so-called main anchor positions of the presented peptide. These receptors(More)
Although there is increasing evidence that virus-specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses play an important role in the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in vivo, only scarce CTL data are available for the ethnic populations currently most affected by the epidemic. In this study, we examined the CD8(+)-T-cell responses in(More)
Promiscuous binding of T helper epitopes to MHC class II molecules has been well established, but few examples of promiscuous class I-restricted epitopes exist. To address the extent of promiscuity of HLA class I peptides, responses to 242 well-defined viral epitopes were tested in 100 subjects regardless of the individuals' HLA type. Surprisingly, half of(More)
Immune activation is a major characteristic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and a strong prognostic factor for HIV-1 disease progression. The underlying mechanisms leading to immune activation in viremic HIV-1 infection, however, are not fully understood. Here we show that, following the initiation of highly active antiretroviral(More)
The interferon (IFN)-gamma Elispot assay has been widely used as a general screening method for the quantification and characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD8+ T cell responses. However, the predictive power of this assay has been challenged due to the lack of efficacy of a recently conducted HIV vaccine phase IIb trial,(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) elite controllers (EC) maintain viremia below the limit of commercial assay detection (<50 RNA copies/ml) in the absence of antiviral therapy, but the mechanisms of control remain unclear. HLA-B57 and the closely related allele B*5801 are particularly associated with enhanced control and recognize the same(More)
Virus diversity and escape from immune responses are the biggest challenges to the development of an effective vaccine against HIV-1. We hypothesized that T-cell vaccines targeting the most conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which are common to most variants and bear fitness costs when mutated, will generate effectors that efficiently recognize and(More)
Many components contribute to immunodominance in the response to a complex virus, but their relative importance is unclear. This was addressed using vaccinia virus and HLA-A*0201 as the model system. A comprehensive analysis of 18 viral proteins recognized by CD8(+) T cell responses demonstrated that approximately one-fortieth of all possible 9- to 10-mer(More)