Learn More
BACKGROUND In the RV144 trial, the estimated efficacy of a vaccine regimen against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was 31.2%. We performed a case-control analysis to identify antibody and cellular immune correlates of infection risk. METHODS In pilot studies conducted with RV144 blood samples, 17 antibody or cellular assays met prespecified(More)
Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules bind, and present to T cells, short peptides derived from intracellular processing of proteins. The peptide repertoire of a specific molecule is to a large extent determined by the molecular structure accommodating so-called main anchor positions of the presented peptide. These receptors are extremely(More)
Although there is increasing evidence that virus-specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses play an important role in the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in vivo, only scarce CTL data are available for the ethnic populations currently most affected by the epidemic. In this study, we examined the CD8(+)-T-cell responses in(More)
The generation of humanized BLT mice by the cotransplantation of human fetal thymus and liver tissues and CD34(+) fetal liver cells into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice allows for the long-term reconstitution of a functional human immune system, with human T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes/macrophages repopulating(More)
Escape from T cell-mediated immune responses affects the ongoing evolution of rapidly evolving viruses such as HIV. By applying statistical approaches that account for phylogenetic relationships among viral sequences, we show that viral lineage effects rather than immune escape often explain apparent human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mediated immune-escape(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) elite controllers (EC) maintain viremia below the limit of commercial assay detection (<50 RNA copies/ml) in the absence of antiviral therapy, but the mechanisms of control remain unclear. HLA-B57 and the closely related allele B*5801 are particularly associated with enhanced control and recognize the same(More)
BACKGROUND A safe and effective vaccine for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is a global priority. We tested the efficacy of a DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus type 5 boost (DNA/rAd5) vaccine regimen in persons at increased risk for HIV-1 infection in the United States. METHODS At 21 sites, we randomly assigned 2504(More)
The interferon (IFN)-gamma Elispot assay has been widely used as a general screening method for the quantification and characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD8+ T cell responses. However, the predictive power of this assay has been challenged due to the lack of efficacy of a recently conducted HIV vaccine phase IIb trial,(More)
Immune activation is a major characteristic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and a strong prognostic factor for HIV-1 disease progression. The underlying mechanisms leading to immune activation in viremic HIV-1 infection, however, are not fully understood. Here we show that, following the initiation of highly active antiretroviral(More)
Promiscuous binding of T helper epitopes to MHC class II molecules has been well established, but few examples of promiscuous class I-restricted epitopes exist. To address the extent of promiscuity of HLA class I peptides, responses to 242 well-defined viral epitopes were tested in 100 subjects regardless of the individuals' HLA type. Surprisingly, half of(More)