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Cortical γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons in rodents originate mainly in ventrally positioned ganglionic eminences (GEs), but their origin in primates is still debated. We studied human fetal forebrains during the first half of gestation (5-23 gestational weeks, gw) for the expression of ventral transcription factors, Nkx2.1, Dlx1,2, Lhx6, and(More)
Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Petra Harrer and Christian Fromm (Vienna University of Economics and BA) for their valuable assistance. We are also indebted to webmasters and The Sims experts. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to, Micha Klein Martin Lorber (EA Games) for their support in this research project.(More)
mAKAP (muscle-selective A-kinase-anchoring protein) co-ordinates a cAMP-sensitive negative-feedback loop comprising PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase) and the cAMP-selective PDE4D3 (phosphodiesterase 4D3). In vitro and cellular experiments demonstrate that PKA-phosphorylation of PDE4D3 on Ser-13 increases the affinity of PDE4D3 for mAKAP. Our data suggest(More)
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is rate limiting in the mobilization of fatty acids from cellular triglyceride stores. This central role in lipolysis marks ATGL as an interesting pharmacological target as deregulated fatty acid metabolism is closely linked to dyslipidemic and metabolic disorders. Here we report on the development and characterization of(More)
The concentration of the second messenger cAMP is tightly controlled in cells by the activity of phosphodiesterases. We have previously described how the protein kinase A-anchoring protein mAKAP serves as a scaffold for the cAMP-dependent protein kinase PKA and the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 in cardiac myocytes. PKA and PDE4D3 constitute a(More)
The coordinated breakdown of intracellular triglyceride (TG) stores requires the exquisitely regulated interaction of lipolytic enzymes with regulatory, accessory, and scaffolding proteins. Together they form a dynamic multiprotein network designated as the "lipolysome." Adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) catalyzes the initiating step of TG hydrolysis and(More)
Monoacylglycerol lipases (MGLs) play an important role in lipid catabolism across all kingdoms of life by catalyzing the release of free fatty acids from monoacylglycerols. The three-dimensional structures of human and a bacterial MGL were determined only recently as the first members of this lipase family. In addition to the α/β-hydrolase core, they showed(More)
Elevated circulating fatty acids (FAs) contribute to the development of obesity-associated metabolic complications such as insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hence, reducing adipose tissue lipolysis to diminish the mobilization of FAs and lower their respective plasma concentrations represents a potential treatment(More)
Monoglyceride lipases (MGLs) are a group of α/β-hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of monoglycerides (MGs) into free fatty acids and glycerol. This reaction serves different physiological functions, namely in the last step of phospholipid and triglyceride degradation, in mammalian endocannabinoid and arachidonic acid metabolism, and in detoxification(More)