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BACKGROUND Thrombin is the most potent agonist of platelets and plays a critical role in the development of arterial thrombosis. Human platelets express dual thrombin receptors, protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4; however, there are no therapeutic strategies that effectively target both receptors. METHODS AND RESULTS Platelet aggregation studies(More)
Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) play important roles in normal and pathological remodeling processes including atherothrombotic disease, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer. MMPs have been viewed as matrix-degrading enzymes, but recent studies have shown that they possess direct signaling capabilities. Platelets harbor several MMPs that modulate(More)
BACKGROUND Secretoneurin is an abundant neuropeptide of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, located in nerve fibers characterized by a close interaction with blood vessels and known to stimulate endothelial cell migration. METHODS AND RESULTS We hypothesized that secretoneurin might act as an angiogenic cytokine and tested for these(More)
Unresolved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the epithelium can provoke intestinal inflammation. Hypomorphic variants of ER stress response mediators, such as X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1), confer genetic risk for inflammatory bowel disease. We report here that hypomorphic Xbp1 function instructs a multilayered regenerative response in the intestinal(More)
Sepsis is a deadly disease characterized by the inability to regulate the inflammatory-coagulation response in which the endothelium plays a key role. The cause of this perturbation remains poorly understood and has hampered the development of effective therapeutics. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are involved in the host response to pathogens, but can also(More)
BACKGROUND Meta-analysis of two randomised controlled trials in severe sepsis performed with recombinant human activated protein C may provide further insight as to the therapeutic utility of targeting the clotting cascade in this syndrome. METHODS In search for relevant studies published, two randomized clinical trials were found eligible. RESULTS The(More)
Adenosine triphosphate and diphosphate that activate platelet, leukocyte, and endothelium functions are hydrolyzed by endothelial CD39/ATPDase. Because CD39/ATPDase is downregulated in endothelial cells by inflammation and this may be affected by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, we examined the role of cerivastatin and simvastatin in regulation of endothelial(More)
G-protein-coupled bombesin receptors are capable of signaling through the G(i) protein even when receptor-coupling to G(q) is blocked by [D-Arg1,D-Phe5,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]substance P (SpD), a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist and "biased" agonist to bombesin receptors. As bombesin is a monocyte and tumor cell attractant, we were interested in the effects of SpD(More)
Activation of neuropeptide receptors on leukocytes induces chemotaxis. We determined in Boyden chambers with micropore filters, whether in human monocytes and lymphocytes this migratory response is heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) dependent. Chemotaxis toward calcitonin gene-related peptide, secretoneurin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and(More)
BACKGROUND Interaction of fibrinogen with specific leukocyte integrins of monocytes may link coagulation and inflammation, however, the precise mechanism of fibrinogen leading to the pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulatory response on monocytes is yet unknown. RESULTS Fibrinogen and its digestion fragment D induced pro-coagulant activation of monocytes as(More)