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Early manifestations of sickle nephropathy include glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria, typically microalbuminuria. Over time, a subset of patients develops histologic changes, decreased glomerular filtration, and ultimately renal failure. This study was designed to determine the rate of glomerular hyperfiltration and prevalence of albuminuria in a(More)
Stroke is a devastating complication of sickle cell anemia (SCA), affecting 5% to 10% of patients before adulthood. Several candidate genetic polymorphisms have been proposed to affect stroke risk, but few have been validated, mainly because previous studies were hampered by relatively small sample sizes and the absence of additional patient cohorts for(More)
Hydroxyurea has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of sickle cell anemia (SCA), primarily through the induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). However, the exact mechanisms by which hydroxyurea can induce HbF remain incompletely defined, although direct transcriptional effects and altered cell cycle kinetics have been proposed. In this study, we(More)
Hydroxyurea improves hematologic parameters for children with sickle cell disease (SCD), but its long-term efficacy at maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has not been determined. Between 1995 and 2002, hydroxyurea therapy was initiated for 122 pediatric patients with SCD including 106 with homozygous sickle cell anemia (HbSS), 7 with sickle hemoglobin C (HbSC), 7(More)
Glomerular hyperfiltration and microalbuminuria/proteinuria are early manifestations of sickle nephropathy. The effects of hydroxyurea therapy on these renal manifestations of sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well defined. Our objective was to investigate the effects of hydroxyurea on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured by (99m)Tc-DTPA clearance, and(More)
BACKGROUND Stroke occurs in 5-10% of children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and has a high (>50%) risk of recurrence without therapy. Chronic monthly erythrocyte transfusions effectively prevent recurrent stroke, but their long-term use is limited by serious side effects, including iron overload. An alternative to transfusion for secondary stroke prevention(More)
Hydroxyurea has hematologic and clinical efficacy in sickle cell anemia (SCA), but its effects on transcranial Doppler (TCD) flow velocities remain undefined. Fifty-nine children initiating hydroxyurea therapy for clinical severity had pretreatment baseline TCD measurements; 37 with increased flow velocities (> or = 140 cm/s) were then enrolled in an(More)
OBJECTIVE Transfusions prevent secondary stroke in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) but also cause iron overload. Alternatives for stroke prophylaxis with effective therapy to reduce iron burden are needed. STUDY DESIGN For 35 children with SCA and stroke, transfusions were prospectively discontinued. Hydroxyurea was prescribed for stroke(More)
Hydroxyurea induces fetal hemoglobin, improves laboratory parameters, and ameliorates clinical complications of sickle cell anemia (SCA), but its long-term efficacy and safety in this patient population remain incompletely defined. Although generally considered non-DNA reactive, an important safety concern is that hydroxyurea may indirectly cause genotoxic(More)
Hydroxyurea therapy has proven laboratory and clinical efficacies for children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). When administered at maximum tolerated dose (MTD), hydroxyurea increases fetal hemoglobin (HbF) to levels ranging from 10% to 40%. However, interpatient variability of percentage of HbF (%HbF) response is high, MTD itself is variable, and accurate(More)