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Oseltamivir is the ester-type prodrug of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate. It has been shown to be an effective treatment for both seasonal influenza and the recent pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 influenza, reducing both the duration and severity of the illness. It is also effective when used preventively. This review aims to describe the current(More)
AIMS The aims of this observational study were to assess the variability in imatinib pharmacokinetics and to explore the relationship between its disposition and various biological covariates, especially plasma alpha1-acid glycoprotein concentrations. METHODS A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM based on 321 plasma samples from(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine HIV-1 RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of successfully treated patients and to evaluate if combination antiretroviral treatments with higher central nervous system penetration-effectiveness (CPE) achieve better CSF viral suppression. METHODS Viral loads (VLs) and drug concentrations of lopinavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz were(More)
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can be defined as the measurement of drug in biological samples to individualise treatment by adapting drug dose to improve efficacy and/or reduce toxicity. The cytotoxic drugs are characterised by steep dose-response relationships and narrow therapeutic windows. Inter-individual pharmacokinetic (PK) variability is often(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Transactivated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) represent the key source of extra cellular matrix (ECM) in fibrotic liver. Imatinib, a potent inhibitor of the PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase, reduces HSC proliferation and fibrogenesis when treatment is initiated before fibrosis has developed. We tested the antifibrotic potential of imatinib in(More)
BACKGROUND The imatinib trough plasma concentration (C(min)) correlates with clinical response in cancer patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of plasma C(min) is therefore suggested. In practice, however, blood sampling for TDM is often not performed at trough. The corresponding measurement is thus only remotely informative about C(min) exposure. (More)
Several cancer treatments are shifting from traditional, time-limited, nonspecific cytotoxic chemotherapy cycles to continuous oral treatment with specific protein-targeted therapies. In this line, imatinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI), has excellent efficacy in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. It has opened the way to(More)
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) aims to optimize treatments by individualizing dosage regimens based on the measurement of blood concentrations. Dosage individualization to maintain concentrations within a target range requires pharmacokinetic and clinical capabilities. Bayesian calculations currently represent the gold standard TDM approach but require(More)
In their recent article, Mahon et al 1 demonstrate that MDR1 gene overexpression can confer resistance to imatinib mesylate (Gleevec; Novartis, Basel, Switzerland) in leukemia cell lines. Several other cellular mechanisms of resistance to imatinib have also been identified, 2-4 but the possible importance of drug-transporter proteins has been only recently(More)
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may contribute to optimizing the efficacy and safety of antifungal therapy because of the large variability in drug pharmacokinetics. Rapid, sensitive, and selective laboratory methods are needed for efficient TDM. Quantification of several antifungals in a single analytical run may best fulfill these requirements. We(More)