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PURPOSE Recent increases in incidence and survival of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States have been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, but empirical evidence is lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS HPV status was determined for all 271 oropharyngeal cancers (1984-2004) collected by the three population-based cancer registries in the(More)
Malignant cells, like all actively growing cells, must maintain their telomeres, but genetic mechanisms responsible for telomere maintenance in tumors have only recently been discovered. In particular, mutations of the telomere binding proteins alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death-domain associated protein (DAXX) have been(More)
PURPOSE Endometrial cancers have long been divided into estrogen-dependent type I and the less common clinically aggressive estrogen-independent type II. Little is known about risk factors for type II tumors because most studies lack sufficient cases to study these much less common tumors separately. We examined whether so-called classical endometrial(More)
An update to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline regarding screening for the early detection of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer is presented. The guidelines are based on a systematic evidence review, contributions from six working groups, and a recent symposium co-sponsored by the ACS, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology(More)
OBJECTIVE We wanted to identify the most promising methylation marker candidates for cervical cancer early detection. METHODS A systematic literature review was performed in Medline and weighted average frequencies for methylated genes stratified by tissue source and methods used were computed. RESULTS 51 studies were identified analyzing 68 different(More)
A group of 47 experts representing 23 professional societies, national and international health organizations, and federal agencies met in Bethesda, MD, September 14-15, 2012, to revise the 2006 American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology Consensus Guidelines. The group's goal was to provide revised evidence-based consensus guidelines for(More)
The EUROGIN 2011 roadmap reviews the current burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related morbidity, as well as the evidence and potential practice recommendations regarding primary and secondary prevention and treatment of cancers and other disease associated with HPV infection. HPV infection causes ~600,000 cases of cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina,(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) cofactors for cervical cancer include smoking, multiparity, and oral contraceptive use, but their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. It is also unknown whether cofactors vary by HPV genotypes. The Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED) is a cross-sectional study comprising women(More)
Previous investigations have provided conflicting results regarding whether alcohol consumption affects endometrial cancer risk, although in many of these studies the highest category of alcohol intake examined was limited. Further, most were unable to resolve how alcohol associations are affected by beverage type, the presence of other endometrial cancer(More)
This short review outlines our understanding of cervical cancer precursors, concentrating on the central etiologic role of persistent human papillomavirus infection. The stages of cervical carcinogenesis are better understood than for most other major cancers, providing a successful cancer etiology and prevention model.