Nicolas W. Schuck

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We examined whether older adults differ from younger adults in how they learn from rewarding and aversive outcomes. Human participants were asked to either learn to choose actions that lead to monetary reward or learn to avoid actions that lead to monetary losses. To examine age differences in the neurophysiological mechanisms of learning, we applied a(More)
Although the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been studied intensely for decades, its precise functions have remained elusive. We recently hypothesized that the OFC contains a "cognitive map" of task space in which the current state of the task is represented, and this representation is especially critical for behavior when states are unobservable from(More)
The striatum and medial temporal lobe play important roles in implicit and explicit memory, respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have linked striatal dopamine modulation to both implicit as well as explicit sequence learning and suggested a potential role of the striatum in the emergence of explicit memory during sequence learning. With respect to(More)
Knowledge of sequential regularities plays a key role in forms of explicit and implicit memory, such as working memory and motor skills. Despite important advances in the study of sequence knowledge in the past century, the theoretical development of implicit and explicit memory has occurred separately. Unlike the literature on implicit sequence learning,(More)
Spatial navigation relies on multiple mnemonic mechanisms and previous work in younger adults has described two separate types of spatial memory. One type uses directional as well as boundary-related information for spatial memory and mainly implicates the hippocampal formation. The other type has been linked to directional and landmark-related information(More)
Many daily behaviors require us to actively focus on the current task and ignore all other distractions. Yet, ignoring everything else might hinder the ability to discover new ways to achieve the same goal. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms that support the spontaneous change to better strategies while an established strategy is executed. Multivariate(More)
The hippocampus and striatum are core neural circuits involved in spatial learning and memory. Although both neural systems support spatial navigation, experimental and theoretical evidence indicate that they play different roles. In particular, whereas hippocampal place cells generate allocentric neural representations of space that are sensitive to(More)
1 In neuroscience, the similarity matrix of neural activity patterns in response to different sensory stimuli or under different cognitive states reflects the structure of neural representational space. Existing methods derive point estimations of neural activity patterns from noisy neural imaging data, and the similarity is calculated from these point(More)
Much research has been conducted aimed at the representations and mechanisms that enable learning of sequential structures. A central debate concerns the question whether item-item associations (i.e., in the sequence A-B-C-D, B comes after A) or associations of item and serial list position (i.e., B is the second item in the list) are used to represent(More)
Observational learning is an important mechanism for cognitive and social development. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying observational learning in children are not well understood. In this study, we used a probabilistic reward-based observational learning paradigm to compare behavioral and electrophysiological markers of individual and(More)