Nicolas Vinckenbosch

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Residents of the Tibetan Plateau show heritable adaptations to extreme altitude. We sequenced 50 exomes of ethnic Tibetans, encompassing coding sequences of 92% of human genes, with an average coverage of 18x per individual. Genes showing population-specific allele frequency changes, which represent strong candidates for altitude adaptation, were(More)
Given that retroposed copies of genes are presumed to lack the regulatory elements required for their expression, retroposition has long been considered a mechanism without functional relevance. However, through an in silico assay for transcriptional activity, we identify here >1,000 transcribed retrocopies in the human genome, of which at least(More)
The origin of new genes through gene duplication is fundamental to the evolution of lineage- or species-specific phenotypic traits. In this report, we estimate the number of functional retrogenes on the lineage leading to humans generated by the high rate of retroposition (retroduplication) in primates. Extensive comparative sequencing and expression(More)
As modern humans migrated out of Africa, they encountered many new environmental conditions, including greater temperature extremes, different pathogens and higher altitudes. These diverse environments are likely to have acted as agents of natural selection and to have led to local adaptations. One of the most celebrated examples in humans is the adaptation(More)
Mammalian sex chromosomes stem from ancestral autosomes and have substantially differentiated. It was shown that X-linked genes have generated duplicate intronless gene copies (retrogenes) on autosomes due to this differentiation. However, the precise driving forces for this out-of-X gene "movement" and its evolutionary onset are not known. Based on(More)
Lipophilic compounds such as retinoic acid and long-chain fatty acids regulate gene transcription by activating nuclear receptors such as retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These compounds also bind in cells to members of the family of intracellular lipid binding proteins, which includes cellular retinoic(More)
Gene copies that stem from the mRNAs of parental source genes have long been viewed as evolutionary dead-ends with little biological relevance. Here we review a range of recent studies that have unveiled a significant number of functional retroposed gene copies in both mammalian and some non-mammalian genomes. These studies have not only revealed previously(More)
A major question in evolutionary biology is how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across the human genome. Previous work has documented a reduction in genetic diversity in regions of the genome with low recombination rates. However, it is unclear whether other summaries of genetic variation, like allele frequencies, are also(More)
Targeted capture combined with massively parallel exome sequencing is a promising approach to identify genetic variants implicated in human traits. We report exome sequencing of 200 individuals from Denmark with targeted capture of 18,654 coding genes and sequence coverage of each individual exome at an average depth of 12-fold. On average, about 95% of the(More)
Gene duplication is the primary source of new genes with novel or altered functions. It is known that duplicates may obtain these new functional roles by evolving divergent expression patterns and/or protein functions after the duplication event. Here, using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a model organism, we investigate a previously little considered(More)