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Squamate reptiles number approximately 8000 living species and are a major component of the world's terrestrial vertebrate diversity. However, the established relationships of the higher-level groups have been questioned in recent molecular analyses. Here we expand the molecular data to include DNA sequences, totaling 6192 base pairs (bp), from nine nuclear(More)
Among extant reptiles only two lineages are known to have evolved venom delivery systems, the advanced snakes and helodermatid lizards (Gila Monster and Beaded Lizard). Evolution of the venom system is thought to underlie the impressive radiation of the advanced snakes (2,500 of 3,000 snake species). In contrast, the lizard venom system is thought to be(More)
Higher-level snake relationships are inferred from sequence analyses of one nuclear gene (C-mos) and three mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and cytochrome b). Extant snakes belong to two lineages: the fossorial Scolecophidia, which feed on small prey on a frequent basis, and the ecologically diverse Alethinophidia ('typical' snakes), which feed on(More)
Venom is a key innovation underlying the evolution of advanced snakes (Caenophidia). Despite this, very little is known about venom system structural diversification, toxin recruitment event timings, or toxin molecular evolution. A multidisciplinary approach was used to examine the diversification of the venom system and associated toxins across the full(More)
Neurotrophins are a diverse class of structurally related proteins, essential for neuronal development, survival, plasticity and regeneration. They are characterized by major family members, such as the nerve growth factors (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which have been demonstrated here to lack coding sequence(More)
  • Chanaz Salmi, Celine Loncle, Nicolas Vidal, Yves Letourneux, Jacques Fantini, Marc Maresca +3 others
  • 2008
We reported that squalamine is a membrane-active molecule that targets the membrane integrity as demonstrated by the ATP release and dye entry. In this context, its activity may depend on the membrane lipid composition. This molecule shows a preserved activity against bacterial pathogens presenting a noticeable multi-resistance phenotype against antibiotics(More)
BACKGROUND Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are also important in lipid and protein digestion and in influencing the intestinal microflora. We greatly extend prior surveys of bile salt diversity in both reptiles and mammals, including analysis of 8,000 year old human coprolites and coprolites from the extinct Shasta ground sloth(More)
Lactic acid is a valuable and fully degradable organic acid with promising applications in poly-lactic acid production (Taskila S and Ojamo, 2013 [1]). Despite their efficiency, the cost of the current lactic acid bio-processes is still an obstacle to this application (Miller et al., 2011 [2]). To ameliorate lactic acid producing strains, researchers are(More)
Ecological monitoring contributes to the understanding of complex ecosystem functions. The diets of fish reflect the surrounding environment and habitats and may, therefore, act as useful integrating indicators of environmental status. It is, however, often difficult to visually identify items in gut contents to species level due to digestion of soft-bodied(More)
  • Deepa Agashe, Joshua Akey, Doris Bachtrog, Miriam Barlow, Anna Di Rienzo, Joel Dudley +46 others
  • 2015
Cover Art Caption: Gene expression data coupled with genomic comparisons between ants that produce or do not produce the worker caste suggest that there are no explicitly " worker " genes. The ant photograph is of Pogonomyrmex barbatus workers next to P. anergismus social parasites (with wings), used with permission from