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To determine the lung microvascular pressure profile during hypoxia, we micropunctured the subpleural microcirculation of isolated perfused cat lungs. Our procedures involved exsanguinating a cat, then cannulating its pulmonary artery, left atrium, and trachea. Using the cat's own blood, we perfused the lungs at pulmonary artery and left atrial pressures of(More)
Microvascular pressures in the pulmonary circulation were measured under the pleural surface of the isolated perfused dog lung by the servo-null technique. Strong glass micropipettes with short beveled tips were used, with a suction ring to stabilize the lung's surface. Of the total vascular resistance, 45 percent was in the alveolar wall capillaries(More)
We studied the effects of uneven pulmonary artery obstruction by microemboli on steady state transvascular fluid and protein exchange in normal and leukopenic sheep. We measured pulmonary artery and left atrial pressures, cardiac output, lung lymph flow, and lymph plasma protein concentrations. Sheep were made profoundly leukopenic by administration of(More)
We recently showed that we can selectively and safely deplete most (average 85%) of the pulmonary intravascular macrophages in sheep by intravenously infusing liposomes containing dichloromethylene bisphosphonate. After a 1-h stable baseline, we made a 6-h comparison after a 30-min intravenous endotoxin infusion (1 microg/kg) between six anesthetized(More)
To determine whether hypoxia directly affects pulmonary microvascular filtration of fluid or permeability to plasma proteins, we measured steady state lung lymph flow and protein transport in eight unanesthetized sheep breathing 10% O2 in N2 for 4 hours. We also studied three sheep breathing the same gas mixture for 48 hours. We surgically prepared the(More)
We studied the effect of intravenous dextran 70 infusion on lung liquid and protein exchange to determine whether its effects were due to altered hemodynamics or to altered microvascular permeability. In each of six instrumented awake sheep with chronic lung lymph fistulas, we performed three experiments: 1) control, 2) a 30-minute infusion of 1 l of 6%(More)
We present the dynamic modeling, analysis, and control design of a Planar-Vertical Take-Off and Landing (PVTOL) underactuated aerial vehicle equipped either with a rigid- or an elastic-joint arm. We prove that in both cases the system is exactly linearizable with a dynamic feedback and differentially flat for the same set of outputs (but different(More)
We propose and experimentally validate a new class of models for the total thrust generation in multi-rotor UAVs which is suitable for low- and middle-end platforms. Differently from typical models assuming to instantaneously control the rotor spinning velocity, in the proposed class we consider that the total thrust has its own dynamics and its final value(More)
The Starling equation, which describes net transvascular liquid flow, does not include the possibility that a reduction in plasma protein concentration may have a direct effect on lung liquid conductance or microvascular protein permeability. Nevertheless, both effects have been reported. Since these results were not predictable, we wondered whether the(More)
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