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Some species introduced into new geographical areas from their native ranges wreak ecological and economic havoc in their new environment. Although many studies have searched for either species or habitat characteristics that predict invasiveness of exotic species, the match between characteristics of the invader and those of members of the existing native(More)
Land plants have had the reputation of being problematic for DNA barcoding for two general reasons: (i) the standard DNA regions used in algae, animals and fungi have exceedingly low levels of variability and (ii) the typically used land plant plastid phylogenetic markers (e.g. rbcL, trnL-F, etc.) appear to have too little variation. However, no one has(More)
Warming experiments are increasingly relied on to estimate plant responses to global climate change. For experiments to provide meaningful predictions of future responses, they should reflect the empirical record of responses to temperature variability and recent warming, including advances in the timing of flowering and leafing. We compared phenology (the(More)
Figs (Ficus; ca 750 species) and fig wasps (Agaoninae) are obligate mutualists: all figs are pollinated by agaonines that feed exclusively on figs. This extraordinary symbiosis is the most extreme example of specialization in a plant-pollinator interaction and has fuelled much speculation about co-divergence. The hypothesis that pollinator specialization(More)
We sequenced 2167 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b and 16S, and 1390 bp of nuclear genes BRCA1 and ApoB in shrews taxa (Eulipotyphla, family Soricidae). The aim was to study the relationships at higher taxonomic levels within this family, and in particular the position of difficult clades such as Anourosorex and Myosorex. The data confirmed(More)
DNA sequences were used to assess the monophyly and inter-relationships of Miscanthus, Saccharum and related genera in the Saccharum complex. Three DNA regions were sequenced, including the trnL intron and the trnL-F intergenic spacer of the plastid genome and the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA). Because it was more variable, the ITS region(More)
In this paper we included a very broad representation of grass family diversity (84% of tribes and 42% of genera). Phylogenetic inference was based on three plastid DNA regions rbcL, matK and trnL-F, using maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods. Our results resolved most of the subfamily relationships within the major clades (BEP and PACCMAD), which had(More)
C4 photosynthesis is an adaptation derived from the more common C3 photosynthetic pathway that confers a higher productivity under warm temperature and low atmospheric CO2 concentration [1, 2]. C4 evolution has been seen as a consequence of past atmospheric CO2 decline, such as the abrupt CO2 fall 32-25 million years ago (Mya) [3-6]. This relationship has(More)
The origin of species diversity has challenged biologists for over two centuries. Allopatric speciation, the divergence of species resulting from geographical isolation, is well documented. However, sympatric speciation, divergence without geographical isolation, is highly controversial. Claims of sympatric speciation must demonstrate species sympatry,(More)
Pi acquisition of crops via arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is becoming increasingly important due to limited high-grade rock Pi reserves and a demand for environmentally sustainable agriculture. Here, we show that 70% of the overall Pi acquired by rice (Oryza sativa) is delivered via the symbiotic route. To better understand this pathway, we combined(More)