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In recent years, two techniques have become available for the non-invasive stimulation of human motor cortex: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The effects of TMS and tDCS when applied over motor cortex should be considered with regard not only to cortical circuits but also to spinal motor circuits.(More)
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) when applied over the motor cortex, modulates excitability dependent on the current polarity. The impact of this cortical modulation on spinal cord network excitability has rarely been studied. In this series of experiments, performed in healthy subjects, we show that anodal tDCS increases disynaptic inhibition(More)
Adequate grip force modulation is critical to manual dexterity and often impaired in hemiparetic stroke patients. Previous studies in hemiparetic patients suggest that aspects of grip force control may be differently affected by the lesion. We developed a visuomotor power grip force-tracking task allowing quantification of tracking error, force variability(More)
Motor skill acquisition in the lower limb may induce modifications of spinal network excitability. We hypothesized that short-term motor adaptation in precision grip tasks would also induce modifications of cervical spinal network excitability. In a first series of experiments, we studied the impact of two different precision grip force control tasks (a(More)
Many studies have investigated the changes of spinal neuronal networks in patients with cortico-subcortical or spinal lesions occurring during adulthood. In contrast, little is known about modifications of transmission within spinal networks implied in motor control for patients suffering from perinatal lesions. In the present series of experiments, we have(More)
RATIONALE In COPD patients, mortality risk is influenced by age, severity of respiratory disease, and comorbidities. With an unbiased statistical approach we sought to identify clusters of COPD patients and to examine their mortality risk. METHODS Stable COPD subjects (n = 527) were classified using hierarchical cluster analysis of clinical, functional(More)
Following stroke, control of both the contralesional (paretic) and ipsilesional (less affected) arms is altered. The purpose of this study was to analyse the consequences of stroke on joint rotations of both shoulder girdles, that is, glenohumeral (GH) and scapula motion. Because of hemispheric specialization, we hypothesized that changes would relate to(More)
BACKGROUND Walking following stroke involves compensatory strategies by the unaffected leg to cope with the deficits in the hemiparetic leg. Recently, training paradigms based on the principles of task-oriented repetitive exercise have provided a valuable insight regarding the influence of restraining compensatory movements to improve motor performances. We(More)
BACKGROUND Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection into rectus femoris (RF) is a therapeutic modality used to improve knee flexion during the swing phase of gait in hemiparesis. The impact of this treatment on lower limb coordination is unknown. The authors evaluated whether BTX injection into RF is associated with modifications of intersegmental coordination in(More)
Stiff knee gait (SKG) is common in hemiplegic patients. The main focus of treatment is rectus femoris (RF) spasticity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin injection (BTI) in the RF muscle on peak knee flexion during swing phase and its quantitative and functional impact on gait. We also wished to evaluate the correlation(More)