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Adequate grip force modulation is critical to manual dexterity and often impaired in hemiparetic stroke patients. Previous studies in hemiparetic patients suggest that aspects of grip force control may be differently affected by the lesion. We developed a visuomotor power grip force-tracking task allowing quantification of tracking error, force variability(More)
In recent years, two techniques have become available for the non-invasive stimulation of human motor cortex: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The effects of TMS and tDCS when applied over motor cortex should be considered with regard not only to cortical circuits but also to spinal motor circuits.(More)
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) when applied over the motor cortex, modulates excitability dependent on the current polarity. The impact of this cortical modulation on spinal cord network excitability has rarely been studied. In this series of experiments, performed in healthy subjects, we show that anodal tDCS increases disynaptic inhibition(More)
Many studies have investigated the changes of spinal neuronal networks in patients with cortico-subcortical or spinal lesions occurring during adulthood. In contrast, little is known about modifications of transmission within spinal networks implied in motor control for patients suffering from perinatal lesions. In the present series of experiments, we have(More)
Motor skill acquisition in the lower limb may induce modifications of spinal network excitability. We hypothesized that short-term motor adaptation in precision grip tasks would also induce modifications of cervical spinal network excitability. In a first series of experiments, we studied the impact of two different precision grip force control tasks (a(More)
RATIONALE In COPD patients, mortality risk is influenced by age, severity of respiratory disease, and comorbidities. With an unbiased statistical approach we sought to identify clusters of COPD patients and to examine their mortality risk. METHODS Stable COPD subjects (n = 527) were classified using hierarchical cluster analysis of clinical, functional(More)
Following stroke, control of both the contralesional (paretic) and ipsilesional (less affected) arms is altered. The purpose of this study was to analyse the consequences of stroke on joint rotations of both shoulder girdles, that is, glenohumeral (GH) and scapula motion. Because of hemispheric specialization, we hypothesized that changes would relate to(More)
BACKGROUND Walking following stroke involves compensatory strategies by the unaffected leg to cope with the deficits in the hemiparetic leg. Recently, training paradigms based on the principles of task-oriented repetitive exercise have provided a valuable insight regarding the influence of restraining compensatory movements to improve motor performances. We(More)
An imbalance between proteases and antiproteases may play a role in emphysema, which is characterized by increased degradation of extracellular matrix, and in airway remodeling in chronic bronchitis and asthma, in which there is increased collagen deposition. We assessed the effect of smoking on release of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) and of its(More)
BACKGROUND The velocity of reaching movements is often reduced in patients with stroke-related hemiparesis; however, they are able to voluntarily increase paretic hand velocity. Previous studies have proposed that faster speed improves movement quality. OBJECTIVE To investigate the combined effects of reaching distance and speed instruction on trunk and(More)