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Metformin is a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes with no defined cellular mechanism of action. Its glucose-lowering effect results from decreased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose utilization. Metformin's beneficial effects on circulating lipids have been linked to reduced fatty liver. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a(More)
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been hypothesized to mediate contraction and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribonucleoside (AICAR)-induced increases in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether treadmill exercise and isolated muscle contractions in rat skeletal muscle increase the(More)
Metformin is an effective hypoglycemic drug that lowers blood glucose concentrations by decreasing hepatic glucose production and increasing glucose disposal in skeletal muscle; however, the molecular site of metformin action is not well understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity increases in response to depletion of cellular energy stores,(More)
BACKGROUND Impaired glucose tolerance is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease and conversion to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interventions that may prevent or delay such occurrences are of great clinical importance. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to examine whether pioglitazone can reduce the(More)
Mutations in insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway have been shown to lead to increased longevity in various invertebrate models. Therefore, the effect of the haplo-insufficiency of the IGF-1 receptor (Igf1r(+/-)) on longevity/aging was evaluated in C57Bl/6 mice using rigorous criteria where lifespan and end-of-life pathology were measured under optimal husbandry(More)
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by exercise induces several cellular processes in muscle. Exercise activation of AMPK is unaffected in lean (BMI approximately 25 kg/m(2)) subjects with type 2 diabetes. However, most type 2 diabetic subjects are obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)), and exercise stimulation of AMPK is blunted in obese rodents. We(More)
We tested the hypothesis that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor, regulates diabetes-induced renal hypertrophy. In kidney glomerular epithelial cells, high glucose (30 mM), but not equimolar mannitol, stimulated de novo protein synthesis and induced hypertrophy in association with increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor(More)
We examined the contributions of insulin secretion, glucagon suppression, splanchnic and peripheral glucose metabolism, and delayed gastric emptying to the attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia during intravenous exenatide administration. Twelve subjects with type 2 diabetes (3 F/9 M, 44 +/- 2 yr, BMI 34 +/- 4 kg/m2, Hb A(1c) 7.5 +/- 1.5%) participated(More)
BACKGROUND The metabolic defects of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) seem to be specifically targeted by pioglitazone. However, information about its long-term use in this population is limited. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy and safety of long-term pioglitazone treatment in patients with NASH and(More)
AIMS This study examined the effects of pioglitazone on body weight and bone mineral density (BMD) prospectively in patients with impaired glucose tolerance as pioglitazone (TZD) increases body weight and body fat in diabetic patients and increases the risk of bone fractures. METHODS A total of 71 men and 163 women aged 49.3 (10.7) years [mean (s.d.)];(More)