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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed by dopaminergic (DA) neurons have long been considered as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric diseases, including nicotine and cocaine addiction or Parkinson's disease. However, DA neurons express mRNAs coding for most, if not all, neuronal nAChR subunits, and the(More)
nAChRs are pentameric transmembrane proteins into the superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that includes the 5HT3, glycine, GABAA, and GABAC receptors. Electron microscopy, affinity labeling, and mutagenesis experiments, together with secondary structure predictions and measurements, suggest an all-beta folding of the N-terminal extracellular domain,(More)
Nicotine affects many aspects of behaviour including learning and memory through its interaction with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Functional nAChRs are pentameric proteins containing at least one type of alpha-subunit and one type of beta-subunit. The involvement of a particular neuronal nicotinic subunit in pharmacology and(More)
Although the neuronal nicotinic receptor alpha 6 subunit was cloned several years ago, its functional significance remains to be investigated. Here we describe an in situ hybridization study of the mRNA for this subunit in the adult rat central nervous system using oligonucleotide probes. Specific alpha 6 mRNA labelling was restricted to a few nuclei(More)
Multiple models of human metabolism have been reconstructed, but each represents only a subset of our knowledge. Here we describe Recon 2, a community-driven, consensus 'metabolic reconstruction', which is the most comprehensive representation of human metabolism that is applicable to computational modeling. Compared with its predecessors, the(More)
In the present study we have investigated the anatomical distribution pattern of nAChR alpha 3, alpha 4, beta 2, and beta 4 subunit mRNAs during prenatal and perinatal development of the rat CNS and PNS. Three main developmental patterns have been recognized. (1) In the majority of cases studied (caudal brain, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, trigeminal(More)
Circuit diagrams and Unified Modeling Language diagrams are just two examples of standard visual languages that help accelerate work by promoting regularity, removing ambiguity and enabling software tool support for communication of complex information. Ironically, despite having one of the highest ratios of graphical to textual information, biology still(More)
Nicotine exerts antinociceptive effects by interacting with one or more of the subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that are present throughout the neuronal pathways that respond to pain. To identify the particular subunits involved in this process, we generated mice lacking the alpha4 subunit of the neuronal nAChR by homologous(More)
Coliform bacteria detect chemical attractants by means of a membrane-associated cluster of receptors and signalling molecules. We have used recently determined molecular structures, in conjunction with plastic models generated by three-dimensional printer technology, to predict how the proteins of the complex are arranged in relation to the plasma membrane.(More)
The use of computational modeling to describe and analyze biological systems is at the heart of systems biology. Model structures, simulation descriptions and numerical results can be encoded in structured formats, but there is an increasing need to provide an additional semantic layer. Semantic information adds meaning to components of structured(More)