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The paracaspase MALT1 is pivotal in antigen receptor-mediated lymphocyte activation and lymphomagenesis. MALT1 contains a caspase-like domain, but it is unknown whether this domain is proteolytically active. Here we report that MALT1 had arginine-directed proteolytic activity that was activated after T cell stimulation, and we identify the signaling protein(More)
Unicellular organisms, such as the protozoan parasite Leishmania, can be stimulated to show some morphological and biochemical features characteristic of mammalian apoptosis. This study demonstrates that under a variety of stress conditions such as serum deprivation, heat shock and nitric oxide, cell death can be induced leading to genomic DNA fragmentation(More)
The human protozoan parasite Leishmania major has been shown to exhibit several morphological and biochemical features characteristic of a cell death program when differentiating into infectious stages and under a variety of stress conditions. Although some caspase-like peptidase activity has been reported in dying parasites, no caspase gene is present in(More)
Apoptosis is a normal component of the development and health of multicellular organisms. However, apoptosis is now considered a prerogative of unicellular organisms, including the trypanosomatids of the genera Trypanosoma spp. and Leishmania spp., causative agents of some of the most important neglected human diseases. Trypanosomatids show typical(More)
The protective capabilities of three Leishmania recombinant proteins - histone 1 (H1) and hydrophilic acylated surface protein B1 (HASPB1) immunized singly, or together as a protein cocktail vaccine with Montanide, and the polyprotein MML immunized with MPL-SE adjuvant - were assessed in beagle dogs. Clinical examination of the dogs was carried out(More)
A glucocorticoid-responsive vector is described which allows for the highly inducible expression of complementary DNAs (cDNAs) in stably transfected mammalian cell lines. This vector, pLK-neo, composed of a variant mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat promoter, containing a hormone regulatory element, a Geneticin resistance-encoding gene in a(More)
Infection with Leishmania major parasites results in the development of cutaneous ulcerative lesions on the skin. We investigated the protective potential of a single, recombinant histone H1 antigen against cutaneous leishmaniasis in an outbred population of vervet monkeys, using Montanide adjuvant. Protection was assessed by challenging the animals with a(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying lymphocyte extravasation remain poorly characterized. We have recently identified junctional adhesion molecule-2 (JAM-2), and have shown that antibodies to JAM-2 stain high endothelial venules (HEVs) within lymph nodes and Peyer patches of adult mice. Here we show that mouse lymphocytes migrate in greater numbers across(More)
Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by infections with intracellular parasites of the Leishmania Viannia subgenus, including Leishmania guyanensis. The pathology develops after parasite dissemination to nasopharyngeal tissues, where destructive metastatic lesions form with chronic inflammation. Currently, the mechanisms involved in lesion development are(More)