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Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (Pol II) has evolved an array of heptad repeats with the consensus sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 at the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit (Rpb1). Differential phosphorylation of Ser2, Ser5, and Ser7 in the 5' and 3' regions of genes coordinates the binding of transcription and RNA processing(More)
Argonaute proteins play a major part in transcriptional gene silencing in many organisms, but their role in the nucleus of somatic mammalian cells remains elusive. Here, we have immunopurified human Argonaute-1 and Argonaute-2 (AGO1 and AGO2) chromatin-embedded proteins and found them associated with chromatin modifiers and, notably, with splicing factors.(More)
One clear hallmark of mammalian promoters is the presence of CpG islands (CGIs) at more than two-thirds of genes, whereas TATA boxes are only present at a minority of promoters. Using genome-wide approaches, we show that GC content and CGIs are major promoter elements in mammalian cells, able to govern open chromatin conformation and support paused(More)
In mammals, the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase (Pol) II consists of 52 conserved heptapeptide repeats containing the consensus sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7. Post-translational modifications of the CTD coordinate the transcription cycle and various steps of mRNA maturation. Here we describe Tyr1 phosphorylation (Tyr1P) as a(More)
Dynamic modification of heptad-repeats with the consensus sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) C-terminal domain (CTD) regulates transcription-coupled processes. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that K7-residues in non-consensus repeats of human RNAPII are modified by acetylation, or mono-, di-, and tri-methylation.(More)
UNLABELLED We describe an R package designed for processing aligned reads from chromatin-oriented high-throughput sequencing experiments. Pasha (preprocessing of aligned sequences from HTS analyses) allows easy manipulation of aligned reads from short-read sequencing technologies (ChIP-seq, FAIRE-seq, MNase-Seq, …) and offers innovative approaches such as(More)
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