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UNLABELLED The search for traces of life is one of the principal objectives of Mars exploration. Central to this objective is the concept of habitability, the set of conditions that allows the appearance of life and successful establishment of microorganisms in any one location. While environmental conditions may have been conducive to the appearance of(More)
Extraterrestrial habitability is a complex notion. We briefly review what is known about the origin of life on Earth, that is, life based on carbon chemistry and water. We then discuss habitable conditions (past and present) for established life and for the survival of microorganisms. Based on these elements, we propose to use the term habitable only for(More)
Instruments for surface missions to extraterrestrial bodies should be cross-calibrated using a common suite of relevant materials. Such work is necessary to improve instrument performance and aids in the interpretation of in-situ measurements. At the CNRS campus in Orléans, the Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers en région Centre (OSUC) has created a(More)
BACKGROUND This study is the second world survey of critical care nursing organizations (CCNOs). The first survey was undertaken 6 years ago and data were collected from 23 countries over a 2-year period. The aim of the second survey was to profile the issues and activities of critical care nurses and their professional organizations, expanding on the(More)
BACKGROUND Emergency department (ED) crowding caused by access block is an increasing public health issue and has been associated with impaired healthcare delivery, negative patient outcomes and increased staff workload. AIM To investigate the impact of opening a new ED on patient and healthcare service outcomes. METHODS A 24-month time series analysis(More)
Centre pour leur contribution. iii Foreword The official language for theses in France is French under the French law 94-665 of 4 August 1994 on the use the French language. A letter from the chief of Research and Technology of the 10 April 1995 states: "The awarding of a doctorate to a French national is that it be written and defended in French [...]".(More)
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