Nicolas Ambert

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Over the past decades, our view of astrocytes has switched from passive support cells to active processing elements in the brain. The current view is that astrocytes shape neuronal communication and also play an important role in many neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the growing awareness of the importance of astrocytes, the exact mechanisms underlying(More)
Paired-pulse stimulation is a standard protocol that has been used for decades to characterize dynamic systems: the differences in responses to two sequential identical stimuli as a function of inter-stimulus interval provide quantitative information on the dynamics of the system. In neuroscience, the paired-pulse protocol is also widely used at multiple(More)
Recent experimental evidence suggests that glial cells are more than just supporting cells to neurons - they play an active role in signal transmission in the brain. We herein propose to investigate the importance of these mechanisms and model neuron-glia interactions at synapses using three approaches: A parametric model that takes into account the(More)
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play important physiological as well as pathological roles in the central nervous system (CNS). While NMDAR competitive antagonists, such as D-2-Amino-5-Phosphopentanoic acid (AP5) have been shown to impair learning and memory, the non-competitive antagonist, memantine, is paradoxically beneficial in mild to moderate(More)
Activation of several subtypes of glutamate receptors contributes to changes in postsynaptic calcium concentration at hippocampal synapses, resulting in various types of changes in synaptic strength. Thus, while activation of NMDA receptors has been shown to be critical for long-term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) of synaptic(More)
One of the fundamental characteristics of the brain is its hierarchical organization. Scales in both space and time that must be considered when integrating across hierarchies of the nervous system are sufficiently great as to have impeded the development of routine multilevel modeling methodologies. Complex molecular interactions at the level of receptors(More)
Glutamatergic synapses are the most prevalent functional elements of information processing in the brain. Changes in pre-synaptic activity and in the function of various post-synaptic elements contribute to generate a large variety of synaptic responses. Previous studies have explored postsynaptic factors responsible for regulating synaptic strength(More)
Exposure to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, either pesticides or chemical warfare agents, represents a major health problem. As potent irreversible inhibitors of cholinesterase, OP may induce seizures, as in status epilepticus, and occasionally brain lesions. Although these compounds are extremely toxic agents, the search for novel antidotes remains(More)
Ionotropic NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors iGluRs play important roles in synaptic function under physiological and pathological conditions. iGluRs sub-synaptic localization and subunit composition are dynamically regulated by activity-dependent insertion and internalization. However, understanding the impact on synaptic transmission of changes in(More)
In this paper we study the effects of the location of ionotropic receptors, especially AMPA and NMDA receptors, on their function at excitatory glutamatergic synapses. As few computational models only allow to evaluate the influence of receptor location on state transition and receptor dynamics, we present an elaborate computational model of a glutamatergic(More)