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We assessed whether the sublingual (s.l.) route would be an effective means of delivering vaccines against influenza virus in mice by using either formalin-inactivated or live influenza A/PR/8 virus (H1N1). Sublingual administration of inactivated influenza virus given on two occasions induced both systemic and mucosal antibody responses and conferred(More)
The first checkpoint during T cell development, known as beta selection, requires the successful rearrangement of the TCR-beta gene locus. Notch signaling has been implicated in various stages during T lymphopoiesis. However, it is unclear whether Notch receptor-ligand interactions are necessary during beta selection. Here, we show that pre-TCR signaling(More)
The potential of sublingual (s.l.) delivery of vaccine was examined in mice. We show the existence of a dense network of dendritic cells (DCs) in the s.l. epithelium and a rapid and transient increase in the frequency of s.l. DCs after topical application of cholera toxin (CT) adjuvant under the tongue. S.l. immunization with ovalbumin and CT induced(More)
The induction of persistent intraepithelial CD8+ T cell responses may be key to the development of vaccines against mucosally transmitted pathogens, particularly for sexually transmitted diseases. Here we investigated CD8+ T cell responses in the female mouse cervicovaginal mucosa after intravaginal immunization with human papillomavirus vectors (HPV(More)
Previous studies demonstrated cross talk between mucosal and reproductive organs during secretory IgA Ab induction. In this study, we aimed to clarify the underlying mechanisms of this cross talk. We found significantly higher titers of Ag-specific secretory IgA Ab in the vaginal wash after mucosal vaccination by both the intranasal (i.n.) and the(More)
BK polyomavirus (BKV) causes significant urinary tract pathogenesis in immunosuppressed individuals, including kidney and bone marrow transplant recipients. It is currently unclear whether BKV-neutralizing antibodies can moderate or prevent BKV disease. We developed reporter pseudoviruses based on seven divergent BKV isolates and performed neutralization(More)
BK polyomavirus (BKV or BKPyV) associated nephropathy affects up to 10% of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). BKV isolates are categorized into four genotypes. It is currently unclear whether the four genotypes are also serotypes. To address this issue, we developed high-throughput serological assays based on antibody-mediated neutralization of BKV(More)
We have recently reported that the sublingual (s.l.) mucosa is an efficient site for inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses. In this study, the potential of s.l. immunization to induce remote Ab responses and CD8(+) cytotoxic responses in the female genital tract was examined in mice by using a nonreplicating Ag, OVA, and cholera toxin (CT) as an(More)
A vaccine against heterosexual transmission by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should generate cytotoxic and antibody responses in the female genital tract and in extra-genital organs. We report that sublingual immunization with HIV-1 gp41 and a reverse transcriptase polypeptide coupled to the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) induced gp41-specific IgA(More)
UNLABELLED No herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccine has been licensed for use in humans. HSV-2 glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) are targets of neutralizing antibodies and T cells, but clinical trials involving intramuscular (i.m.) injection of HSV-2 gB and gD in adjuvants have not been effective. Here we evaluated intravaginal (ivag) genetic immunization of(More)