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Inflammation involves a coordinated, sequential, and self limiting sequence of events controlled by positive and negative regulatory mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs), an evolutionarily conserved class of endogenous 22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs, contribute to the regulation of inflammation by repressing gene expression at the(More)
BACKGROUND Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by immunological abnormalities, vascular damage, and fibroblast proliferation. We have previously shown that a molecular mimicry mechanism links antibodies against the human-cytomegalovirus-derived protein UL94 to the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. The UL94 epitope shows homology with(More)
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are stromal precursors endowed with extensive immunomodulative properties. In this study, we aimed to assess whether Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3)- and TLR4-activated BM-MSC influence human neutrophil (PMN) responses under coculture conditions. We show that TLR3 triggering by polyinosinic:polycytidylic(More)
To identify the molecular basis of IL-10 expression in human phagocytes, we evaluated the chromatin modification status at their IL-10 genomic locus. We analyzed posttranslational modifications of histones associated with genes that are active, repressed, or poised for transcriptional activation, including H3K4me3, H4Ac, H3K27Ac, and H3K4me1 marks.(More)
Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F are 2 of several cytokines produced by T helper 17 cells (Th17), which are able to indirectly induce the recruitment of neutrophils. Recently, human Th17 cells have been phenotypically characterized and shown to express discrete chemokine receptors, including CCR2 and CCR6. Herein, we show that highly purified neutrophils(More)
Neutrophils, historically known for their involvement in acute inflammation, are also targets for infection by many different DNA and RNA viruses. However, the mechanisms by which they recognize and respond to viral components are poorly understood. Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) is a synthetic mimetic of viral dsRNA that is known to interact(More)
Human monocyte-derived DC express the enzyme NADPH oxidase, responsible for ROS production. We show that Candida albicans did not activate NADPH oxidase in DC, and was poorly killed by these cells. However, Candida-killing activity increased upon DC stimulation with the NADPH oxidase activator PMA and was further enhanced by DC treatment with IFN-alpha or(More)
Analysis of the molecular mechanisms governing the ability of IL-10 to keep inflammation under control has highlighted the existence of a great degree of plasticity and specificity with regard to innate immune cells. In this respect, neutrophils represent a perfect example of innate immune cells conditioned by external signals (for instance, by LPS), as(More)
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by intestinal Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections is a worldwide health problem, as dramatically exemplified by the German outbreak occurred in summer 2011 and by a constant burden of cases in children. Shiga toxins (Stx) play a pivotal role in HUS by triggering endothelial damage in kidney and brain(More)
TNF-like cytokine (TL1A) is a newly identified member of the TNF superfamily of ligands that is important for T cell costimulation and Th1 polarization. However, despite increasing information about its functions, very little is known about expression of TL1A in normal or pathological states. In this study, we report that mononuclear phagocytes appear to be(More)