Nicola S. Lewis

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The molecular basis of antigenic drift was determined for the hemagglutinin (HA) of human influenza A/H3N2 virus. From 1968 to 2003, antigenic change was caused mainly by single amino acid substitutions, which occurred at only seven positions in HA immediately adjacent to the receptor binding site. Most of these substitutions were involved in antigenic(More)
Equine influenza virus (EIV) surveillance is important in the management of equine influenza. It provides data on circulating and newly emerging strains for vaccine strain selection. To this end, antigenic characterisation by haemaggluttination inhibition (HI) assay and phylogenetic analysis was carried out on 28 EIV strains isolated in North America and(More)
Pigs and humans have shared influenza A viruses (IAV) since at least 1918, and many interspecies transmission events have been documented since that time. However, despite this interplay, relatively little is known regarding IAV circulating in swine around the world compared with the avian and human knowledge base. This gap in knowledge impedes our(More)
AIM The ultrasound-guided percutaneous technique of Hickman line insertion has not been widely adopted in pediatric surgical practice. We wished to review our own experience of using this technique for insertion into the internal jugular vein. METHODS Our vascular access team consists of a consultant surgeon and 2 consultant anesthetists. All procedures(More)
Prior to the introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus from humans into pigs, four phylogenetic clusters (α-, β-, γ- and δ) of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene from H1 influenza viruses could be found in US swine. Information regarding the antigenic relatedness of the H1 viruses was lacking due to the dynamic and variable nature of swine lineage H1. We(More)
Influenza virus evades prevailing natural and vaccine-induced immunity by accumulating antigenic change in the haemagglutinin surface protein. Linking amino acid substitutions in haemagglutinin epitopes to epidemiology has been problematic because of the scarcity of data connecting these scales. We use experiments on equine influenza virus to address this(More)
Equine influenza viruses are a major cause of respiratory disease in horses worldwide and undergo antigenic drift. Several outbreaks of equine influenza occurred worldwide during 2010-2012, including in vaccinated animals, highlighting the importance of surveillance and virus characterisation. Virus isolates were characterised from more than 20 outbreaks(More)
PURPOSE Previous studies at our laboratory identified 6 bladder cancer specific nuclear matrix proteins termed BLCA-1 to 6. We recently developed an immunoassay that detects the bladder cancer specific nuclear matrix protein BLCA-4. We analyzed urine samples from patients with bladder cancer, those with spinal cord injury and normal volunteers to determine(More)
All lyssaviruses cause fatal encephalitis in mammals. There is sufficient antigenic variation within the genus to cause variable vaccine efficacy, but this variation is difficult to characterize quantitatively: sequence analysis cannot yet provide detailed antigenic information, and antigenic neutralization data have been refractory to high-resolution(More)
Vampire-bat (Desmodus rotundus) attacks on cattle are a major concern for cattle-raising area. Blood loss and paralytic rabies due to bat bites can impose severe losses on the livestock. We took four municipalities inside the Sao Joao da Boa Vista veterinary district (Sao Paulo, Brazil) as a study area and tested a set of landscape features for spatial(More)