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BACKGROUND Massively parallel sequencing offers an enormous potential for expression profiling, in particular for interspecific comparisons. Currently, different platforms for massively parallel sequencing are available, which differ in read length and sequencing costs. The 454-technology offers the highest read length. The other sequencing technologies are(More)
Orphans are genes restricted to a single phylogenetic lineage and emerge at high rates. While this predicts an accumulation of genes, the gene number has remained remarkably constant through evolution. This paradox has not yet been resolved. Because orphan genes have been mainly analyzed over long evolutionary time scales, orphan loss has remained(More)
BACKGROUND Although RNA-seq greatly advances our understanding of complex transcriptome landscapes, such as those found in mammals, complete RNA-seq studies in livestock and in particular in the pig are still lacking. Here, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to gain insight into the characterization of the poly-A RNA fraction expressed in pig male(More)
The Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) are among the last species that have been domesticated around 3000-6000 years ago. During domestication, strong artificial (anthropogenic) selection has shaped the livestock, creating a huge amount of phenotypes and breeds. Hence, domestic animals represent a unique resource to(More)
RNA-Seq is a powerful tool for the annotation of genomes, in particular for the identification of isoforms and UTRs. Nevertheless, several software tools exist and no standard strategy to obtain a reliable annotation is yet established. We tested different combinations of the most commonly used reference-based alignment tools (TopHat, GSNAP) in combination(More)
Drosophila simulans is a close relative of the genetic model D. melanogaster. Its worldwide distribution in combination with the absence of segregating chromosomal inversions makes this species an increasingly attractive model to study the molecular signatures of adaptation in natural and experimental populations. In an effort to improve the genomic(More)
Cystoisospora suis is a coccidian species that typically affects suckling piglets. Infections occur by oral uptake of oocysts and are characterized by non-hemorrhagic transient diarrhea, resulting in poor weight gain. Apparently, primary immune responses to C. suis cannot readily be mounted by neonates, which contributes to the establishment and rapid(More)
Vaccine development targeting protozoan parasites remains challenging, partly due to the complex interactions between these eukaryotes and the host immune system. Reverse vaccinology is a promising approach for direct screening of genome sequence assemblies for new vaccine candidate proteins. Here, we applied this paradigm to Cystoisospora suis, an(More)
We report the observation of a steepening in the cosmic ray energy spectrum of heavy primary particles at about 8×10(16) eV. This structure is also seen in the all-particle energy spectrum, but is less significant. Whereas the "knee" of the cosmic ray spectrum at 3-5×10(15) eV was assigned to light primary masses by the KASCADE experiment, the new structure(More)
The Y chromosome directly reflects male genealogies, but the extremely low Y chromosome sequence diversity in horses has prevented the reconstruction of stallion genealogies [1, 2]. Here, we resolve the first Y chromosome genealogy of modern horses by screening 1.46 Mb of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) in 52 horses from 21 breeds. Based(More)