Nicola P. Klein

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CONTEXT Current rotavirus vaccines were not associated with intussusception in large prelicensure trials. However, recent postlicensure data from international settings suggest the possibility of a low-level elevated risk, primarily in the first week after the first vaccine dose. OBJECTIVE To examine the risk of intussusception following pentavalent(More)
BACKGROUND In the United States, children receive five doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine before 7 years of age. The duration of protection after five doses of DTaP is unknown. METHODS We assessed the risk of pertussis in children in California relative to the time since the fifth dose of DTaP from 2006 to 2011. This(More)
The HBx protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a transcriptional activator that is required for infection and may play an important role in HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. Recently, we and others have shown that HBx stimulates the Ras-Raf-MAP kinase cascade, which leads to enhanced cell proliferation and the activation of transcription factors AP-1 and(More)
The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) project is a collaborative project between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and 8 managed care organizations (MCOs) in the United States. Established in 1990 to conduct postmarketing evaluations of vaccine safety, the project has created an infrastructure that allows for high-quality research and surveillance.(More)
Chronic infection by hepatitis B virus is a leading cause of human liver cancer and liver disease. The hepatitis B virus HBx protein is a regulatory factor that is essential for virus infection in mammals and is implicated in development of liver cancer and liver disease. Among the reported activities of HBx is the ability to stimulate Src tyrosine kinases,(More)
The HBx protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small transcriptional transactivator that is essential for infection by the mammalian hepadnaviruses and is thought to be a cofactor in HBV-mediated liver cancer. HBx stimulates signal transduction pathways by acting in the cytoplasm, which accounts for many but not all of its transcriptional activities.(More)
BACKGROUND During the 1990s, the United States switched from combined diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, whole-cell pertussis (DTwP) vaccines to combined acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines because of safety concerns. After a 2010-2011 pertussis outbreak, we sought to evaluate whether disease risk in 10 to 17 year olds differed between those who previously(More)
OBJECTIVE An observational safety study of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) in women was conducted. This report presents findings from autoimmune surveillance. Design.  Subjects were followed for 180days after each HPV4 dose for new diagnoses of 16 prespecified autoimmune conditions. SETTING Two managed care organizations in(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev and human T-cell leukemia virus type I Rex transactivators are posttranscriptional regulatory proteins that promote retroviral gene expression by interacting with specific viral mRNAs. Rev and Rex have markedly dissimilar amino acid sequences and RNA target specificities but are thought to act through the same(More)
INTRODUCTION Since October 2012, the combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) has been recommended in the United States during every pregnancy. METHODS In this observational study from the Vaccine Safety Datalink, we describe receipt of Tdap during pregnancy among insured women with live births across seven(More)