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The fatty acids, n-butyric acid (BA), 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and valproic acid (VPA, 2-propylpentanoic acid) have been used for many years in the treatment of a variety of CNS and peripheral organ diseases including cancer. New information that these drugs alter epigenetic processes through their inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has renewed(More)
Owing to their various modes of reactivity, α-aminonitriles represent versatile building blocks for the construction of a wide range of nitrogen heterocycles. The present Concept article focuses on synthetic methodologies using their bifunctional nature which is the basis of their reactivity as α-amino carbanions and as iminium ions. Reactions exclusively(More)
In the search for new ligands for the Ullmann diaryl ether synthesis, permitting the coupling of electron-rich aryl bromides at relatively low temperatures, 56 structurally diverse multidentate ligands were screened in a model system that uses copper iodide in acetonitrile with potassium phosphate as the base. The ligands differed largely in their(More)
Two consecutive Cu-catalyzed Ullmann-type C-O couplings permitted the first successful entry toward the curare alkaloids (±)-tubocurine and (±)-curine. Starting from vanillin, the synthetic sequence comprises 15 linear steps and includes a total of 24 transformations. In addition, the total synthesis of tubocurine represents a formal total synthesis of the(More)
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