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BACKGROUND The epidemiology of diarrheal disease in Botswana, an HIV endemic region, is largely unknown. Our primary objective was to characterize the prevalent bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens in Gaborone, Botswana. Secondary objectives included determining corresponding antimicrobial resistance patterns and the value of stool white and red blood(More)
BACKGROUND In 2005 a cluster of 53 HIV-infected patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) was detected in the Msinga sub-district, the catchment area for the Church of Scotland Hospital (CoSH) in Tugela Ferry, in KwaZulu-Natal province (KZN), South Africa. KZN is divided into 11 healthcare districts. We sought to determine the(More)
BACKGROUND Populations at highest risk for HIV infection face multiple barriers to HIV testing. To facilitate HIV testing procedures, the San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center eliminated required written patient consent for HIV testing in its medical settings in May 2006. To describe the change in HIV testing rates in different hospital settings and(More)
BACKGROUND Linkage to care after HIV diagnosis is associated with both clinical and public health benefits. However, ensuring and monitoring linkage to care by public health departments has proved to be a difficult task. Here, we report the usefulness of routine monitoring of CD4 T cell counts and plasma HIV viral load as measures of entry into care after(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence and location of new and acute HIV diagnoses in a large urban medical center. Secondary objectives were to evaluate rapid HIV test performance, the added yield of acute HIV screening, and linkage-to-care outcomes. DESIGN Cross-sectional study from November 1, 2008, to April 30, 2009. METHODS The hospital laboratory(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines containing types 16 and 18 are likely to be effective in preventing cervical cancer associated with these HPV types. No information currently exists in Botswana concerning the HPV types causing precancerous or cancerous lesions. Our goal was to determine the prevalence of HPV types associated with precancerous cervical(More)
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a growing problem worldwide. Hypothyroidism is a known complication of treatment with para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), ethionamide (ETH) or prothionamide (PTH), all of which are typically included in treatment of MDR-TB. 1–4 Although hypothyroidism is known to be associated with MDR-TB treatment, the magnitude of(More)
Cervical cancer is the primary cause of cancer-related deaths in women living in Botswana. Paraffin-embedded blocks of formalin-fixed invasive cervical cancer specimens were identified from women living in the U.S. (n = 50) or Botswana (n = 171) from which DNA was extracted. Thin-section PCR was performed on each sample for HPV types and HIV. Comparisons(More)
Aminoglycosides, such as amikacin, are used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. However, ototoxicity is a common problem and is monitored using peak and trough amikacin concentrations based on World Health Organization recommendations. Our objective was to identify clinical factors predictive of ototoxicity using an agnostic machine learning method.(More)
BACKGROUND Aminoglycosides are a critical component of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment but data on their efficacy and adverse effects in Botswana is scarce. We determined the effect of amikacin on treatment outcomes and development of hearing loss in MDR-TB patients. METHODS Patients started on MDR-TB treatment between 2006 and 2012(More)