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OBJECTIVES To synthesize the evidence on the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected sexual intercourse according to viral load and treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS We searched Medline, Embase and conference abstracts from 1996-2009. We included longitudinal studies of(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the cumulative incidence of severe complications associated with genital chlamydia infection in the general female population. METHODS The Uppsala Women's Cohort Study was a retrospective population based cohort study in Sweden, linking laboratory, hospital, and population registers. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hospital(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate epidemiological, social, diagnostic and economic aspects of chlamydia screening in non-genitourinary medicine settings. METHODS Linked studies around a cross-sectional population-based survey of adult men and women invited to collect urine and (for women) vulvovaginal swab specimens at home and mail these to a laboratory for(More)
BACKGROUND Quantifying sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and incidence is important for planning interventions and advocating for resources. The World Health Organization (WHO) periodically estimates global and regional prevalence and incidence of four curable STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis and syphilis. METHODS AND FINDINGS(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of register based, yearly chlamydia screening. DESIGN Controlled trial with randomised stepped wedge implementation in three blocks. SETTING Three regions of the Netherlands: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and South Limburg. PARTICIPANTS 317 304 women and men aged 16-29 years listed on municipal registers at start of(More)
OBJECTIVES To analyse trends in rates of genital chlamydial infection and ectopic pregnancy between 1985 and 1995 in a county in Sweden. SETTING Uppsala county where screening for chlamydial infection, treatment, and contact tracing has been widespread and where ectopic pregnancies are recorded. METHODS Rates of chlamydial infections and ectopic(More)
Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the most common reportable disease in the United States, can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Although C. trachomatis is identified among many women who receive a diagnosis of PID, the incidence and timing of PID and long-term sequelae from an untreated(More)
AIMS To compare the gender distribution of HIV-infected adults receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in resource-constrained settings with estimates of the gender distribution of HIV infection; to describe the clinical characteristics of women and men receiving HAART. METHODS The Antiretroviral Therapy in Lower-Income Countries,(More)
BACKGROUND Screening programmes are promoted to control transmission of and prevent female reproductive tract morbidity caused by genital chlamydia. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of register-based and opportunistic chlamydia screening interventions. METHODS We searched seven electronic databases (Cinahl, Cochrane Controlled(More)
Sexually transmitted infections other than HIV are important global health issues. They have, however, been neglected as a public-health priority and control efforts continue to fail. Sexually transmitted infections, by their nature, affect individuals, who are part of partnerships and larger sexual networks, and in turn populations. We propose a framework(More)